Scientific Identification of Plants
Scientific Identification of Plants
Objective 4.02: Use sexual
and asexual methods of
Do Not Write this Slide
• First Title for your notes “Sexual
• The next 6 slides will go under this
• Propagation from seeds
• Germination Rate-% of
seed that sprouts
Ex)75 out of 100=75%
– Rate affected by seed viability,
temperature, moisture, and
– Rates vary depending on plant
and quality of seed, also.
• Seed viability: seed’s capability of
growing or developing
– Affected by temperature and
Seeds & Seedlings
• Seed plant depth depends on size of
• Plant seeds no more than 1 ½ times the
diameter of the seed
• Larger seeds planted deeper
• Smaller seeds are planted shallow
– Ex)Petunia seeds are TINY
• Water small seeds from bottom by
soaking to prevent burying them
Seeds and Seedlings
• Seedlings (small plants)
– First set of leaves called cotyledons
• Monocots produce _______ seed leaf
• Dicots produce ________ seed leaves
– True leaves are the second set of leaves
– Transplant when first true leaves appear.
– Reduce humidity and water and make
environment more like outside to “harden
• Fast way to get many • Some plants,
do not reproduce
• Easy to do
• Some plants are
difficult to propagate
Materials to Sexually
• Germinating Mat: This is used to
warm up the soil to create the
exact growing conditions a plant
needs to germinate.
• Dibbit: tool used to help put an
indention in soil where seed is to
• Some examples of plants started
by seed include:
– Shasta daisy
• Stratification: Process where seeds
are exposed to water, or certain temp.
to increase germination
• Scarification: Process where seeds
are scratched or notched to rough up
seed coat to make easier to germinate
• Cotyledons: first leaves that emerge
from soil to start process of
photosynthesis in seedling
• If you have 1000 seeds and there
is a germination rate of 60%…how
many seedlings actually emerged
from the soil?
• DO NOT WRITE THIS SLIDE.
• MAKE A NEW SECTION ON YOUR
PAPER TITLED “ASEXUAL
• Asexual—uses growing plant parts
other than seeds
• There are several different
– Division or separation
– Tissue Culture
• Rooting from cuttings—rooting media
should be about four inches deep.
• Best time of day is early morning
because plants have more moisture.
• Start with sterile flats, soil, and
• Must include a node
– Node: A point along a plant where
leaves or other stems are attached
– Internode: Area between two nodes
• Cutting: Taking a 4-6 inch piece of
a plant and forcing roots to grow
• Using hormones and dipping the
cutting in fungicides help speed up
• Herbaceous plants are soft tissue
– Herbaceous cuttings: Geranium,
Impatiens, Begonia, Coleus
• Woody plants are plants that
produce woody tissue
– Woody cuttings: Holly, Abelia,
• Usually propagated from
• Midrib vein must be cut in order to
make roots form
– African violet and philodendron
– Snake plant and jade plant
• Should be spaced three inches
apart in rooting area
• A sand, vermiculite or perlite
mixture is a good medium for root
• The best time of day to take a
stem, leaf or root cutting is early
morning because plants have more
• Examples: Hosta and Daylily
• Cutting or pulling apart rhizomes,
tubers, runners, stolons, etc. to get new
• Rhizome: Creeping underground stem
Ex)Cannas & Bearded Iris
• Stolon: Creeping above ground stem
• Tuber: Swollen, modified stem that grows
• Used on plants that grow in clumps
• Ex) Hostas, Daylilies, Irises, Grasses
• Air layering
– Make an incision at node of branch
– Dust with rooting hormone, place
sphagnum moss in plastic and wrap
around the incision forcing roots to grow on
the stem of the plant
– Once roots form, remove below the new
roots for a new plant
• Trench Layering
– Cutting a trench and laying a branch
in the trench
– Types include: simple, tip, and
• Mound layering
– Mounding the soil on a branch
• Separating natural structures
of a plant without making a
• Examples of plants that can
be separated: bulbs and
• Corm: Enlarged, bulb-like,
fleshy structure found at the
base of a stem. Usually
flattened and round.
– Ex) Gladiolus and crocus
• Budding—a form of grafting when a bud
• Methods of budding:
1. Patch budding.
• Ex) Rose
• Grafting—joining separate plant parts
together so that they form a union and
grow together to make one plant
• Tools needed:
• Plants must be related to each other and
normally in the same genus or family
• Scion: Piece of the
plant at the top of
• Rootstock: Piece of
the plant at the root or
bottom of graft
• EX) Maples, fruit
• Must have sterile environment.
• Way to get most plants in short time.
• Identical to parent plant.
• Asexual reproduction or propagation—
plants mature in shorter time.
• Budding is faster or quicker than grafting.
• In trench layering, plant forms at each
node on covered stem.
• Some plants do not produce viable seeds.
• New plants are same as parent plant.
• Some require special equipment and
skills, such as grafting.
• Cuttings detach plant parts from water
and nutrient source.
• Some plants are patented making