10.4 Plant Reproduction

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Transcript 10.4 Plant Reproduction

10.4 Plant
Reproduction
* Indicates Vocab Word
Stages of Plant Life Cycle
 Plants
have complex life cycles that
include 2 different stages:
 1)
The sporophyte stage
 2)
The gametophyte stage
Plant Stages: *Sporophyte
 During
spores
 These
this stage the plant produces
spores develop into the next stage:
the Gametophyte
Plant Stages: *Gametophyte
 During
made:
this stage 2 kinds of sex cells are
 1)
Sperm Cells
 2) Egg Cells
 Fill
out the cycle on the next page when
done copying
Plant Life Cycle
All plants go through two
stages in their life cycle.
Which are the sporophyte
and gametophyte stages?
Sporophyte Stage
Gametophyte Stage
Plant Life Cycles
 Plants
are based on the length of their life
cycle
 There are three main types:
 1)*Annuals
 2)*Biennials
 3)*Perennials
Plant Life Cycles
 *Annuals:
flowering plants that complete
a life cycle within one growing season
 Ex:
marigolds, petunias, wheat, and
Cucumbers
Plant Life Cycles
 *Biennials:
Angiosperms that complete
their life cycle in two years
1st Year: The plant germinates and grows
roots, short stems and leaves
 2nd Year: The stems lengthen, new leaves
grow, flowers and seeds are produced
Ex: Parsley, Celery, and foxglove

Plant Life Cycles
 *Perennials:
Flowering plants that live for
more than two years (most flower every
year)
 Ex:
Apples, Kale, Watercress
Plant Reproduction
 All
plants undergo sexual reproduction
that involves fertilization
 *Fertilization-occurs
when a sperm cell
unites with an egg cell
 *Zygote-the
name for a fertilized egg
Sexual Reproduction
 Fertilization
can only occur in some plants
if water is present in the environment

The sperm cells swim to the egg via water

Ex. Algae
 Other
plants have adaptions to fertilize in
dry environments
 Slower
than Asexual Reproduction
Asexual Reproduction
 Many
plants go through asexual
reproduction
 Only
one parent and offspring are identical to
parent
 This
does not involve flowers, pollination,
or seeds
 Faster
than Sexual Reproduction
Asexual Reproduction
 Because
only 1 parent: populations grow
fast
 Negatives: no genetic variation
 Grafting:
part of a plants stem is cut and
attached to another related plant species
 Thus plants can now make more than 1
kind of fruit
Nonvascular and Seedless
Vascular Plants
 Some
plants need a very moist
environment to release spores

The spores then grow to become
gametophytes
 When
those produce eggs, the sperm needs
the moist environment to be able to swim to
the eggs
Ex: Mosses, liverworts, hornworts, ferns, club
mosses, horsetails
Nonvascular and Seedless
Vascular Plants
 Spotlight:
Fern
 The fronds are the sporophyte stage of
plant
 On the underside of mature ferns spores
develop in a spore case-wind/water carry
these spores along distance
 If the spore lands in moist shaded soil it will
grow into a gametophyte
Gymnosperm Reproduction Cycle
Explain the steps of pollination and fertilization in
the cycle.
*Cones-the reproductive
structure of a
gymnosperm
Pollination
5
On Next Page
Fill in the chart
For Pollination
And Fertilization
Angiosperm Reproduction
 1st
pollen falls on a flowers stigma
 Then
the sperm cell and egg cell join
together in the flowers ovule
 After
that the zygote develops into the
embryo part of the seed
Angiosperms: Pollination
A
flower is pollinated when a grain of
pollen falls on the stigma
A
flower is pollinated by the wind, or other
animals (think back to pollinators from
10.3)
Angiosperms: Fertilization
 If
the pollen falls on the stigma of a similar
plant fertilization can occur
 Sperm cells join with the egg cells inside
an ovule within the ovary
 A zygote then develops
Angiosperms: Fruit development
and Seed Dispersal
 *Fruit-
the ripened ovary and other
structures of an angiosperm that enclose
one or more seeds
 Fruits are the means by which angiosperm
seeds are dispersed; animals dispers seeds
when they eat in one place and
defecate in an other
 Ex: apples, cherries, tomatoes, squash
Angiosperm Reproduction
Reproduction in angiosperms
begins with flowers.