WEED FLORA AND WEED DISTRIBUTION IN POTATO NEXT

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Transcript WEED FLORA AND WEED DISTRIBUTION IN POTATO NEXT

WEED FLORA
AND
DISTRIBUTION IN
POTATO
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WEED FLORA AND WEED DISTRIBUTION IN POTATO
Potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial Solanum
tuberosum of the Solanaceae family (also known as the nightshades).
Potatoes were first introduced outside the Andes region
four centuries ago, and have become an integral part of
much of the world's cuisine. World's fourth-largest food
crop, following rice, wheat and maize.
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WEED FLORA AND WEED DISTRIBUTION IN POTATO
Weed flora of the experimental field predominantly consisted of
five broad-leaved weed species and one grass weed species.
The weeds present in the experimental field were Spergula
arvensis, Polygonum nepalense, Raphanus raphanistrum, Bidens
pilosa, Galinsoga parviflora under broad leaved weeds and
grasses weed was Pennisetum clandestine.
Broad leaved dominated the weed flora which accounts for about
70-80 per cent followed by grasses.
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WEED FLORA AND WEED DISTRIBUTION IN POTATO
Spercula arvensis
A common weed in potato field and also called as
corn spurrey, belongs to the family Caryophyllaceae.
It is annual seed-propagated weed. Cotyledons are very
slender, linearly needle-shaped, standing diagonally
upward. Foliage leaves are linearly awl-shaped , 2-3 cm
long, sticky haired, in whorled tufts. Stems are erect or
ascending in groups or prostrate, jointly articulated, up to
40 cm high or long.
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WEED FLORA AND WEED DISTRIBUTION IN POTATO
Boll is wide ovate, opens with 5 folds or does not open. Seeds are
small,1-1.8 mm in diameter, black, with narrow brownish margin.
Germination period is spring, seed germination depth is 0.5-3 cm.
Flowering period is summer-autumn.
Number of seeds per plant are from 1000-10,000.
It is widely spread in Western Europe, Northern Africa, Northern
America, China, India and Japan. Infests all crops, occurs in kitchen
gardens, fallow lands, along roadways, near habitation.
Weed is stable under average agriculture conditions only.
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WEED FLORA AND WEED DISTRIBUTION IN POTATO
Polygonum nepalense
Polygonum nepalense (Nepalese smartweed) is a annual belongs to
the family polygonaceae. Polygonum nepalense can grow in semi or
areas with no shade.
Usually common in damp shaded situations, 1700 - 2000m
in Srinagar. Stems decumbent or ascending, 20-40 cm tall.
Lower leaves petiolate; petiole 2-3 cm, winged, leaf blade
ovate or triangular.
Capitate type inflorescence ,peduncle long, glandular hairy;
margin membranous. Pedicels shorter than bracts.
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WEED FLORA AND WEED DISTRIBUTION IN POTATO
Fruiting type is achenes. Tender young leaves
are short - raw or cooked as a vegetable.
A juice of the root is used in the treatment of fevers.
A paste of the root is used as a poultice on fresh
wounds Germination is usually free and easy.
The squeezed plant is used for washing
clothes.Plants used directly as a soap
substitute.
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WEED FLORA AND WEED DISTRIBUTION IN POTATO
Raphanus raphanistrum
Raphanus raphanistrum is a annual belongs to the
family Brassicaceae. It is an annual and biennial,
leaves are alternate. Very often pinnately incised and
do not have stipules.
They have four free saccate sepals and four clawed free petals, staggered ,six
stamens, four of which are longer (as long as the petals, so relatively short in fact
and are arranged in a cross like the petals and the other two are shorter
(tetradynamous flower).
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WEED FLORA AND WEED DISTRIBUTION IN POTATO
The pistil is made up of two fused carpels and the style is very
short, with two lobes. Superior ovary. Racemose type of
inflorescences, often apically corymb-like.
Pollination occurs by entomogamy, nectar is
produced at the base of the stamens and stored on
the sepals.
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WEED FLORA AND WEED DISTRIBUTION IN POTATO
Bidens pilosa (Cobbler’s pegs)
It is a annual herb belongs to the family Asteraceae
(Compositae) commonly known as Spanish Needle.
This plant is considered a weed in some tropical habitats.
However, in some parts of the world it is a source of food or
medicine.
For example, in sub-Saharan Africa, the tender shoots and
young leaves are used fresh or dried as a leaf vegetable,
particularly in times of scarcity weak annual herb usually a
metre or less in height, with spreading branches
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WEED FLORA AND WEED DISTRIBUTION IN POTATO
Leaves are in opposite paris, this, soft and hairy, mostly divided but also
undivided. The flowers (summer-autumn), technically heads of tiny
flowers, terminate all branches and branchlets.
Each head has five or so white ‘petals’ (rays) around a
dense cluster of orange florets. These rapidly mature
to star-heads of the dry pronged fruitlets.
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WEED FLORA AND WEED DISTRIBUTION IN POTATO
Cardamine impatiens
Cardamine impatiens belonging to Brassicaceae. It is a slender, biennial
herb produces sterile leaves.
Leaves are pinnate with several pairs of lanceolate. The
seeds are arranged in one row on each side of the central
membrane of the narrow pod and are ejected out in a
shower due to the tension formed as the seed pod
(silique) dries.
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WEED FLORA AND WEED DISTRIBUTION IN POTATO
The fruit is a peculiar kind of capsule named
siliqua.
Where a siliqua is less than three times as
long as it is broad, it is usually termed a
silicula
The siliqua may break apart at constrictions
occurring between the segments of the seeds.
Most members share a suite of glucosinolate compounds
that has a typical pungent odour usually associated with cole
crops
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Assessment
1. what is the % of broad leaves weed occur in the potato field?
a.50 -60% b.70-80% c.30- 40%.
2. ---------- is the common weed in potato field.
Ans : corn spurrey
3. Bidens pilosa commonly called as ---------Ans : Spanish Needle
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Reference
Gupta, O.P. 1998. Weed management - Principles and Practices. Agro
Botanical Publishers, Bikaner.
Rao, V.S.1994. Principles of Weed Science. Oxford and IBH Publishing
Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
Subramanian, S., A.Mohamed Ali and R.Jayakumar. 1997. All about weed
control. Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi.
C. Chinnusamy, N.K. Prabhakaran P. Janaki K. Govindarajan. 2009.
Compendium on Weed Science Research in Tamil Nadu (25 years).
AICPR-WC, Department of Agronomy, TNAU, Coimbatore - 641 003
K. A.A. Kabeer and V.J. Nair. 2009. Flora of Tamil Nadu- Grasses.
Botanical Survey of India, Kolkatta.
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