Transcript April 22

Carnivorous Plants
Carnivorous Plants
Why be carnivorous?
Carnivorous Plants
Why be carnivorous?
Obtain nutrients in
poor environments
Carnivorous Plants
Why be carnivorous?
Obtain nutrients in
poor environments
Often N
Carnivorous Plants
Why be carnivorous?
Obtain nutrients in
poor environments
Often N
> 600 spp in 6
different orders
Carnivorous Plants
Why be carnivorous?
Obtain nutrients in
poor environments
Often N
> 600 spp in 6
different orders
> 12 genera
Carnivorous Plants
Why be carnivorous?
Obtain nutrients in
poor environments
Often N
> 600 spp in 6
different orders
> 12 genera
Evolved 6 times
independently
Carnivorous Plants
Why be carnivorous?
Obtain nutrients in
poor environments
Often N
> 600 spp in 6
different orders
> 12 genera
Evolved 6 times
independently
Also have >300
paracarnivorous spp
Carnivorous Plants
Why be carnivorous?
Obtain nutrients in
poor environments
Often N
> 600 spp in 6
different orders
> 12 genera
Evolved 6 times
independently
Also have >300
paracarnivorous spp
Described by
Darwin (1875)
Insectivorous Plants
Carnivorous Plants
Why be carnivorous?
Obtain nutrients in poor environments
Often N
> 600 spp in 5
different orders
> 12 genera
Evolved 6 times
independently
Also have >300
paracarnivorous spp
Described by
Darwin (1875)
Insectivorous Plants
Adaptation to nutrients
Carnivorous Plants
Obtain nutrients in poor environments
Often N
> 600 spp in 5
different orders
> 12 genera
Evolved 6 times
independently
Also have >300
paracarnivorous spp
Described by
Darwin (1875)
Insectivorous Plants
Adaptation to nutrients
Only if lots of light & water
Carnivorous Plants
Obtain nutrients in poor environments
Often N
> 600 spp in 5
different orders
> 12 genera
Evolved 6 times
independently
Also have >300
paracarnivorous spp
Described by
Darwin (1875)
Insectivorous Plants
Adaptation to nutrients
Only if lots of light
& water = bogs
Carnivorous Plants
Why be carnivorous?
Obtain nutrients in
poor environments
How to become
carnivorous?
Carnivorous Plants
How to become carnivorous?
1: catch prey
Carnivorous Plants
How to become carnivorous?
1: catch prey
• mainly insects
Carnivorous Plants
How to become carnivorous?
1: catch prey
• mainly insects
2: digest prey
Carnivorous Plants
How to become carnivorous?
1: catch prey
• mainly insects
2: digest prey
3: absorb nutrients
Carnivorous Plants
How to become carnivorous?
1: catch prey
• mainly insects
2: digest prey
3: absorb nutrients
4: kill competing
Bacteria & fungi
Carnivorous Plants
How to become carnivorous?
1: catch prey
• mainly insects
2: digest prey
3: absorb nutrients
4: kill competing
Bacteria & fungi
How to avoid eating
Pollinators?
Catching Prey
5 basic trapping mechanisms
1: Pitfall traps (e.g.pitcher plants)
trap prey in a rolled leaf.
Catching Prey
5 basic trapping mechanisms
1: Pitfall traps (e.g.pitcher plants)
trap prey in a rolled leaf.
• evolved independently ≥ 4 x
Catching Prey
5 basic trapping mechanisms
1: Pitfall traps (e.g.pitcher plants)
trap prey in a rolled leaf.
• evolved independently ≥ 4 x
• recently discovered a 2 liter
Pitcher in Phillipines
Catching Prey
5 basic trapping mechanisms
1: Pitfall traps (e.g.pitcher plants)
trap prey in a rolled leaf.
• evolved independently ≥ 4 x
• recently discovered a 2 liter
Pitcher in Phillipines
• Similar spp live in Indonesia
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NJCaG4tOaAU&feature=rela
ted
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=trWzDlRvv1M&feature=play
er_embedded#!
Catching Prey
5 basic trapping mechanisms
1: Pitfall traps (e.g.pitcher plants)
trap prey in a rolled leaf.
• evolved independently ≥ 4 x
• fuse leaves & alter shape to form
cup trapping rain and prey
Catching Prey
5 basic trapping mechanisms
1: Pitfall traps (e.g.pitcher plants)
trap prey in a rolled leaf.
• evolved independently ≥ 4 x
• fuse leaves & alter shape to form
cup trapping rain and prey
• rely on bacteria for digestion
Catching Prey
• fuse leaves & alter shape to form
cup trapping rain and prey
• rely on bacteria for digestion
• Others protect opening
Catching Prey
• fuse leaves & alter shape to form
cup trapping rain and prey
• rely on bacteria for digestion
• Others protect opening
• Add enzymes to cup solution
Catching Prey
• fuse leaves & alter shape to form
cup trapping rain and prey
• rely on bacteria for digestion
• Others protect opening
• Add enzymes to cup solution
• Absorb nutrients @ cup surface
Catching Prey
5 basic trapping mechanisms
1: Pitfall traps (pitcher plants
trap prey in a rolled leaf.
2:Flypaper traps (sundews)
use a sticky mucilage
http://www.flickr.com/photos/122
[email protected]/3685555296
Catching Prey
5 basic trapping mechanisms
1: Pitfall traps (pitcher plants)
trap prey in a rolled leaf.
2:Flypaper traps (sundews)
use a sticky mucilage
Evolved independently ≥ 5 x
Catching Prey
Stalked glands secrete mucilage & enzymes
Sessile glands absorb nutrients
Catching Prey
Stalked glands secrete mucilage & enzymes
Sessile glands absorb nutrients
Have flowers on long stalks to avoid trapping pollinators
Catching Prey
5 basic trapping mechanisms
1: Pitfall traps (pitcher plants) trap prey in a rolled leaf.
2:Flypaper traps (sundews) use a sticky mucilage
3: Bladder traps vacuum in prey:
only Utricularia, but 214 spp
Catching Prey
5 basic trapping mechanisms
1: Pitfall traps (pitcher plants) trap prey in a rolled leaf.
2:Flypaper traps (sundews) use a sticky mucilage
3: Bladder traps vacuum in prey: only Utricularia
• bladders sealed w hinged doors expel ions
5 basic trapping mechanisms
1: Pitfall traps (pitcher plants) trap prey in a rolled leaf.
2:Flypaper traps (sundews) use a sticky mucilage
3: Bladder traps vacuum in prey: only Utricularia
• bladders sealed w hinged doors expel water
• Osmosis creates vacuum
5 basic trapping mechanisms
1: Pitfall traps (pitcher plants) trap prey in a rolled leaf.
2:Flypaper traps (sundews) use a sticky mucilage
3: Bladder traps vacuum in prey: only Utricularia
• bladders sealed w hinged doors expel water
• Osmosis creates vacuum
• Trigger hairs @ door release vacuum when touched
Bladder traps vacuum in prey: only Utricularia
• bladders sealed w hinged doors expel water
•Osmosis creates vacuum
•Trigger hairs @ door release vac when touched
•Sucks prey into digestive bladder
Bladder traps vacuum in prey: only Utricularia
• bladders sealed w hinged doors expel water
•Osmosis creates vacuum
•Trigger hairs @ door release vac when touched
•Sucks prey into digestive bladder
•Flowers on long stalks
5 basic trapping mechanisms
1: Pitfall traps (pitcher plants) trap prey in a rolled leaf.
2:Flypaper traps (sundews) use a sticky mucilage
3: Bladder traps vacuum in prey
4: Lobster-pot traps trap prey
• chamber is easy to enter, hard to exit
5 basic trapping mechanisms
4: Lobster-pot traps trap prey
• chamber is easy to enter, hard to exit
• inward-pointing hairs
prevent escape
5 basic trapping mechanisms
1: Pitfall traps (pitcher plants) trap prey in a rolled leaf.
2:Flypaper traps (sundews) use a sticky mucilage
3: Bladder traps vacuum in prey
4: Lobster-pot traps trap prey
5: Snap traps use rapid leaf
Movements
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ktIGVtKdgwo&feature
=channel
5 basic trapping mechanisms
Snap traps use rapid leaf Movements
two stimuli are required, 0.5 to 30 seconds apart
5 basic trapping mechanisms
Snap traps use rapid leaf Movements
two stimuli are required, 0.5 to 30 seconds apart
Touched trigger hair cells open channels, generating an
action potential that propagates to midrib cells
5 basic trapping mechanisms
Snap traps use rapid leaf Movements
two stimuli are required, 0.5 to 30 seconds apart
Touched trigger hair cells
open channels, generating
an action potential that
propagates to midrib cells
These respond by pumping
out ions, resulting in rapid
growth
5 basic trapping mechanisms
Touched trigger hair cells open channels, generating an
action potential that propagates to midrib cells
These respond by pumping
out ions, resulting in rapid
growth
Open lobes are convex,
Closed are concave
5 basic trapping mechanisms
Touched trigger hair cells open channels, generating an
action potential that propagates to midrib cells
These respond by pumping
out ions, resulting in rapid
growth
Open lobes are convex,
Closed are concave
AP triggers switch
5 basic trapping mechanisms
Touched trigger hair cells open channels, generating an
action potential that propagates to midrib cells
These respond by pumping out ions, resulting in rapid
growth
Open lobes are convex, Closed are concave
AP triggers switch
Seal to form stomach, fill w enzymes that digest prey
(& leaf) w/in 1-2 weeks
5 basic trapping mechanisms
Touched trigger hair cells open channels, generating an
action potential that propagates to midrib cells
These respond by pumping out ions, resulting in rapid
growth
Open lobes are convex, Closed are concave
AP triggers switch
Seal to form stomach, fill w enzymes that digest prey
(& leaf) w/in 1-2 weeks
Also digest leaf, resorb
both
5 basic trapping mechanisms
Touched trigger hair cells open channels, generating an
action potential that propagates to midrib cells
These respond by pumping out ions, resulting in rapid
growth
Open lobes are convex, Closed are
concave
AP triggers switch
Seal to form stomach,
fill w enzymes that digest prey
(& leaf) w/in 1-2 weeks
Also digest leaf, resorb
Both
Flowers on long stalk
Evolution
1. Pitchers fuse leaves, then
pump enzymes into pitcher
Evolution
1. Pitchers fuse leaves, then
pump enzymes into pitcher
Resorb nutrients across pitcher
surface
Evolution
1. Pitchers fuse leaves, then
pump enzymes into pitcher
Resorb nutrients across pitcher
Surface
2. Flypaper traps evolve from
plants like tobacco that secrete
goo on leaves
Evolution
1. Pitchers fuse leaves, then
pump enzymes into pitcher
Resorb nutrients across pitcher
Surface
2. Flypaper traps evolve from
plants like tobacco that secrete
goo on leaves
Thigmotropism helps trap prey
Evolution
1. Pitchers fuse leaves, then
pump enzymes into pitcher
Resorb nutrients across pitcher
Surface
2. Flypaper traps evolve from
plants like tobacco that secrete
goo on leaves
Thigmotropism helps trap prey
Enzymes help digest prey
Evolution
1. Pitchers fuse leaves, then
pump enzymes into pitcher
2. Flypaper traps evolve from
plants like tobacco that secrete
goo on leaves
3. Bladder traps may have
evolved from aquatic pitchers
Evolution
1. Pitchers fuse leaves, then pump enzymes into pitcher
2. Flypaper traps evolve from plants like tobacco that
secrete goo on leaves
3. Bladder traps may have evolved from aquatic pitchers
Added pitcher lid & mech for ion pumping, then
opening on demand
Evolution
1. Pitchers fuse leaves
2. Flypaper traps
3. Bladder traps may have evolved from aquatic pitchers
4: Lobster-pot traps add
Inward-facing trichomes
to pitchers.
Evolution
1. Pitchers fuse leaves
2. Flypaper traps
3. Bladder traps may have evolved from aquatic pitchers
4: Lobster-pot traps add
Inward-facing trichomes
to pitchers.
5. Snap traps evolved from
Fly-paper traps
• More extreme thigmonasty
Digestion
Digest and resorb everything
Digestion
Digest and resorb everything
Protect pollinators by making long stem separating flower
from traps
Protecting from bacteria and fungi
Fill traps with anti-bacterial and antifungal compunds
Protecting from bacteria and fungi
Fill traps with anti-bacterial and antifungal compunds
Source of new antibiotics!