By: Narges, Jorden and Chantal
• Rhizoids are short and thin filaments. They absorb
nutrients and water from the surrounding
plants. Rhizoids, are not technically roots, but they
act as a root system for plants.
• Simple leaf is a leaf which is not divided into parts.
• Sporangium reproduces through a structure called a
sporangia. It is a round, hard case that holds
thousands of spores.
• Sporangium and seta play an important role in
transfer of materials.
Bryophytes life cycle
• Alternation of generation occurs in mosses like all the
other plants. Alternation of generation means that a
multi-cellular haploid phase (gametophyte) alternates
with a multi-cellular diploid phase (sporophyte).
Diploid means that there are two sets of chromosomes
in the cell and haploid means that there is one set.
• Gametophytes are either male or female. The male
gametophytes produce sperm and the female produces
Examples of Bryophytes
• Brophyta (mosses), Hepatophyta (liverworts), and Anthocerophyta
(hornworts) are the three main classes within the Bryophytes.
• Bryophytes are non-vascular plants that are small and grow closer to one
another. They have the ability to grow on leaves, trunks of other trees,
soil, and even on rocks.
• They have the ability to flourish in the moist and damp areas of the
forests. This helps them to absorb water and help the other plants and
trees to grow in dry season.
• Bryophytes are capable of absorbing anything that are around them which
helps the environmental engineers to study the pollutants present in the
particular area. Bryophytes also help with mineral recycling.
Bryophytes Life Cycle
The life cycle
A mature moss gametophyte produces reproductive structures at the tip of the
plant. For some moss species the male and female reproductive structures are on
the same plant, while for others they are on separate plants. Through mitosis, the
female gametophyte produces haploid female gametes, or eggs and the male
gametophyte produces haploid male gametes, or sperm.
When it rains, sperm are released and splashed onto the female gametophyte.
One sperm swims down the neck to fertilize the egg. This union produces a diploid
zygote, the first cell of the Sporophyte phase. The zygote divides and grows into an
embryo. The embryo grows and develops into a Sporopyte. The Sporophyte
remains attached to the gametophyte and is dependent on it for nutrients and
The mature Sporophyte consists of a sporangium (capsule) and stalk. Inside the
sporangium, the diploid cells undergo meiosis, producing thousands of haploid
spores. When conditions are right, the spore divides through mitosis to produce a
long, multi-branched, photosynthetic strand called the protonema. Over time, the
protonema develops buds, the buds develop into a leafy gametophyte, and the
moss life cycle continues.
• Photosynthesis is the process of converting light energy to
chemical energy and storing it in the bonds of sugar.
• 6 CO2 + 6 H2O+light energy → C6H12O6 + 6 O2
• Carbon dioxide + Water + Light energy → Glucose + Oxygen
• Photosynthesis is the same in all the plants.
• During photosynthesis, sunlight energy is stored in
carbohydrate for later use.
• Most of the carbohydrates stay in the plant but some of it
goes else where, perhaps into the stem, or maybe in a
underground storage area, like potato plants.
• Cellular respiration is a process where the plants take in glucose (sugar)
and carbon dioxide and they produce molecules of water, oxygen and ATP.
• There are three stages in cellular respiration
1. Glycolosis which occurs in the cytoplasm. It produces two molecules of
pyruvate acid, two NADH and two ATPs.
2. Krebs cycle which happens in the matrix of mitochondria. And it produces:
two ATPs, six NADH, two FADH2,and four co2.
3. Electron transport chain happens in the inner membrane of
mitochondria(cristae) uses NADH and FADH2. it produces 32 ATPs.
Prokaryotic produces 38 ATPs, and eukaryotic produces 36 ATPS.
Our plants excrete oxygen during this process.
Circulation (Vascular plants)
• Water and dissolved minerals enter a plant's roots from the
soil by means of diffusion and osmosis.
• These substances then travel upward in the plant in xylem
vessels. The transpiration theory ascribes this ascending flow
to a pull from above, caused by transpiration, the evaporation
of water from leaves.
• The long water column stays intact due to the strong cohesion
between water molecules. Carbohydrates, produced in leaves
by photosynthesis, travel downward in plants in specialized
• This involves active transport of sugars into phloem cells and
water pressure to force substances from cell to cell.
• Most people believe that since plants simply
transform light into chemical energy, they only
need to be in one place with a maximum surface
area to capture sunlight. Actually, some plants
have a creative ways of moving their leaves in
response to a wide variety of stimuli, such as
touch and light. The movement of the leaf can be
either very fast or very slow. Motor cells located
in the region, called the pulvinus control the
movement of the plant. These kind of cells either
shrink or swell because of the inward flow or
outward flow of water.
Gymnosperms (naked seed)
Ginkgophyta (Ginkgo) Anatomy
The basic anatomy of
a cycad consists of a
trunk, which may be
depending on the
species; roots; leaves;
and one or more
cones, if the plant is
mature and in season.
• Ginkgophyta (Ginkgo): played a crucial role in
Chinese herbal medicine for many centuries. It cures
Alzheimer's disease, increase circulation, tastes like
almonds and smells like rancid butter. is a highly
adaptable plant that can grow in almost any
temperate or Mediterranean climate. It is also
resistant to pollution and pests.
• Cycadophyta (Cycad): Cycads are an ancient group of
seed plants with a crown of large compound leaves
and a stout trunk. They are a minor component of
the flora in tropical and subtropical regions. Some
cycads grow in moist areas and in dense forests,
while others are found in exposed places and in semi
• Gnetophyta (Conifers): A tree that is a gymnosperm,
usually evergreen, with cones and needle-shaped or
scale-like leaves. Trees called softwoods are
coniferous. They include pine, spruces, firs, and
cedars. Wood hardness varies among the conifer
species, and some are actually harder than some
• Gymnosperms Life cycle takes about two years to
complete. The photosynthetic part of the life cycle
is the sporophyte. In the pine, the cones are the
specialized reproductive elements where process of
division takes place. The male cones produce the
Pollen grains, and contain the male gametophyte.
When pollen is released, the wind carries it to the
• The cones will be close, until the following year.
Gymnosperms Life Cycle
Psilophyta (Whisk fern)
Lycophyta (club mosses)
Psilophyta (Whisk fern) Anatomy
Sphenophyta (Horsetails) Anatomy
Lycophyta (club mosses) Anatomy
• Root Anatomy