Preserve Walk

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Transcript Preserve Walk

Phylum Pterophyta: Ferns
Define the following terms:
Boston/Sword fern (Nephrolepis biserrata; in front of OE 163/164)
•tropical fern
•not native to Boston
•Why is the species name biserrata? How is this related to its common name?
•How are the sori arranged?
Marsh fern(Thelpteris palustris; in front of OE 163/164)
•delicate and soft fronds produced from a dense
web of rhizomes
•Why is it called the marsh fern?
•How are the sori arranged?
Wart fern (Microsorum scolopendria; in front of OE 165)
native to southeast Asia
•Why is it called the wart fern?
•How are the sori arranged?
•How do they compare in size to the Boston and Marsh ferns?
Horsetail (Equisetum )
a.k.a. scouring rush
name arose from the Latin
– equus = horse
– seta = bristle
grow up to ~20 feet
primarily stem
tiny scale-like leaves at jointed nodes
on the stem
cell walls made of silica
– used to clean pots
Sea grape (Coccoloba uvifera)
• Evergreen
–What kind of leaf arrangement does it have?
• Salt and water tolerant
• Dioecious
–female tree bears fruit
–Can you tell whether your tree is female or male?
• Applications
–fruit can be eaten or used to make jelly
–wood is boiled to make red dye in West Indies
–gum from bark is used to treat throat ailments
–roots are used to treat dysentery
Encephalartos ferox
native to Southeast Africa (Mozambique)
– stems are used as a source of food
Is this plant an angiosperm or gymnosperm?
How can you tell?
Why are cycads referred to as living fossils?
Oak leaf fern (Drynaria quercifolia)
Evergreen (what does that mean?)
Epiphytic (what does that mean?)
What is the function of the Nest leaves?
Identify the two leaf types
•Nest leaves (brown)
•Fertile fronds
Used in Chinese medicine to heal damaged
bones and ligaments
genus Drynaria = mender of shattered
bones in Chinese
Resurrection fern (Polypodium polypodioides)
Epiphyte - but what does it mean?
What plant is it on?
Locate the sori
Why is it called a resurrection fern?
Lichens - symbiotic associations between what
two organisms?
3 types:
1. crustose
grows close to substrate
2. foliose
adhere to substrate in sheets
3. fructiose
grow away from substrate with erect
What type is present on the tree outside WC?
Foliose Lichen
Giant/King Fern (Angiopteris)
native to Southeast Asia
primitive fern
Large erect woody rhizome (up to 1m in
height and width)
fronds >6m in length
Mosses & Liverworts
Where are these plants normally found?
How do these plants differ structurally from ferns? gymnosperms? angiosperms?
Peacock fern (Selaginella uncinata)
Native to China
What color is it?
Where is it mostly found?
– How does its color relate to the environment in which it is found?
Medinilla myriantha
Malaysian orchid
– Native to the Phillipines
pink flowers produced throughout the summer
and spring
can grow up to 6 feet tall
Pitcher plant (Nepenthes mirabilis)
– What type of organisms do you think it feeds on?
– deep cavity containing liquid = pitfall trap
– organisms attracted to the pitcher by color or nectar
Vanilla Orchid (Vanilla planifolia)
climbing orchid/vine
has a sweet scent
opens in the morning and closes at night, never to open again
used by the Aztecs for its flavoring qualities
Chocolate tree (Theobroma cacao)
This is where chocolate comes from!!!
Native to South America, especially the Andes
Theobroma means “Food of the Gods”
So precious the seeds were used as currency
Brought to Europe by Christopher Columbus
• Used for medicinal purposes
•As a diuretic
•As an emolient (good for dry skin)
•Causes release of endorphins and serotonin---> Feels good
• Its flowers are pollinated by midges (tiny flies)
West Indian tree fern (Cyathea arborea)
It’s an exotic
– Native to the West Indies
How is the trunk different from other plants that you’ve seen?
–Is it really a trunk?
Maidenhair fern (Adiantum capillis-veneris)
• Used to make drinks and for medicinal purposes
• Mostly found on rocks
• Is it similar or different in structures to other ferns?
Brake fern (Pteris tripartita)
It’s an exotic
–Native to Africa, Indonesia and Marquesas
Why is it called tripartita?
Bald cypress (Taxodium distictium)
The bald cypress is a deciduous conifer.
What does this mean?
Trees make a dome
– oldest tree in middle and younger shorter trees on periphery
Where on the tree are the male cones?
What about the female cones?
Why are they positioned as such?
What are the function of pneumatophores?
Fig tree (Ficus)
Can be either invasive/native
Ficus aurea is the native species of Florida = Florida
Strangler Fig
– Grows like a vine on a host tree and as it grows
its aerial roots eventually kills (strangles) the host
Waxy leaves retain moisture
Sacred in certain religions/culture
– Islam, East Asia and Buddhism
Royal Poinciana (Delonix rejia)
Native to Madagascar
– grow up to 40 feet tall
– blooms in the summer for 4-8 weeks
It’s leguminous. What does this mean?
• Why do you think this tree is called the flamboyant tree?
Staghorn Fern (Platycerium holtummii)
Native to jungles in Africa, Madagascar,
Australia and Asia
Doesn’t need soil
get nutrition from the air
Cardboard cycad (Zamia furfuracea)
Female Cone
Native to Mexico
Pollinated by beetles
Fruit is poisonous if ingested
causes liver and kidney failure
Male Cone
Cabbage palmetto (Sabal palmetto)
Florida’s state tree
Native to the US, Cuba and the Bahamas
Can grow in all types of conditions
– extremely salt-tolerant
terminal bud was eaten by Native Americans in
heart of palm salad
doing this kills the tree
Seminole Indians of Florida use the fronds to
create chickee huts
West Indian mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni)
In what field is the product of this tree used?
What mechanism do the seeds use for dispersal?
Found in South Florida and the Caribbean
It is semi-deciduous. What does this
These trees can get up to 75 feet tall
and usually form canopies.
Dade County slash pine (Pinus elliotti var. densa)
Female Cone
Male Cones
Native to Florida
Pollinated by wind
female cone develops from the male cone
These trees are fire-dependent. Why?
What happens if they are not burnt?
What is the terminal bud? What does this signify?
Where on the tree are the male cones? What about the female cones? Which are larger?
What mechanism do the seeds use for dispersal?
Gumbo limbo (Bursera simaruba)
• It’s bark can cause skin irritation
–Has been used as an antidote to poisonwood reaction
–Thought to be able to cure gout
• Notice the bark of this tree
–What color is it?
•What is the benefit of having a bark that color?
–What texture is it?
• Why do you think it is called the tourist tree?