Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants What Is a Plant?

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Transcript Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants What Is a Plant?

Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
Section 1:
The Plant Kingdom
What characteristics do all plants share?
What do plants need to live successfully on land?
How do nonvascular plants and vascular plants differ?
What are the different stages of a plant’s life cycle?
Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
What Is a Plant?
Nearly all plants are autotrophs, organisms that produce their
own food. All plants are eukaryotes that contain many cells.
In addition, all plant cells are surrounded by cell walls.
Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
Plant Body Structure
The body of a plant is organized into organ systems,
organs, tissues, and cells.
Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
Plant Body Structure
The body of a plant is organized into organ systems,
organs, tissues, and cells.
Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
Plant Body Structure
The body of a plant is organized into organ systems,
organs, tissues, and cells.
Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
Plant Body Structure
The body of a plant is organized into organ systems,
organs, tissues, and cells.
Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
Plant Body Structure
The body of a plant is organized into organ systems,
organs, tissues, and cells.
Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
Adaptations for Living on Land
Plants lived in the
oceans for millions of
years before they slowly
adapted to live on land.
In order to successfully
live on land, plants
evolved these 5
adaptations:
Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
Adaptations for Living on Land
#1: Obtaining Water
and Nutrients
Land plants evolved
roots to obtain water
and nutrients from the
soil.
Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
Adaptations for Living on Land
#2: Retain Water
Cuticle (waxy,
waterproof layer that
covers most leaves)
helps prevent water loss
due to evaporation.
Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
Adaptations for Living on Land
#3: Transport
Materials
Vascular tissue
consists of tube-like
structures that allow
food, minerals, and
water to move
throughout the plant.
Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
Adaptations for Living on Land
#4: Support
Cell walls supply
adequate support
and strength
against gravity
(and other things).
Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
Adaptations for Living on Land
#5: Reproduction
Plants that lived on
land needed a way to
spread their sex cells
without the help of
water.
Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
Classification of Plants
Plants are categorized into 2 major groups:
» Vascular plants
» Non-vascular plants
Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
Classification of Plants
Vascular Plants
– Contain vascular tissue.
– Are better suited to live on land.
– Can grow very tall.
– Can live in any non-arctic
environment, even the desert.
Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
Classification of Plants
Non-vascular Plants
– Lacks vascular tissue.
– Found in extremely wet
environments.
– Are only a few
centimeters tall.
– Usually found growing
low to the ground and in
damp, shady places.
Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
Complex Life Cycles
Plants have complex life cycles that include two different
stages: the sporophyte stage and the gametophyte stage.
Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
End of Section:
The Plant Kingdom
Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
Section 2: Plants
Without Seeds
What characteristics do the three groups of nonvascular
plants share?
What characteristics do the three groups of seedless
vascular plants share?
Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
Characteristics of Seedless Vascular Plants
Ferns, club mosses, and
horsetails share two
characteristics. They have true
vascular tissue and they do not
produce seeds. Instead of
seeds, these plants reproduce
by releasing spores.
Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
Mosses
A moss gametophyte is lowgrowing and has structures
that look like roots, stems,
and leaves. The stalklike
sporophyte generation
remains attached to the
gametophyte.
Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
Ferns
Most ferns have underground stems in addition to roots. The
leaves, or fronds, grow above ground.
Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
End of Section:
Plants Without
Seeds
Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
Section 3:
The Characteristics
of Seed Plants
What characteristics do seed plants share?
How do seeds become new plants?
Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
What Is a Seed Plant?
The stems of vascular plants contain bundles of phloem and
xylem. In addition, thick cell walls and vascular tissue help
support the plant.
Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
How Seeds Become New Plants
A seed has three main parts–an embryo, stored food, and a
seed coat. If a seed lands in an area where conditions are
favorable, the plant sprouts out of the seed and begins to
grow.
Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
End of Section:
The Characteristics
of Seed Plants
Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
Section 4: Roots,
Stems, and Leaves
What are the main function of roots,
stems, and leaves?
Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
Root Structure
A root’s structure is adapted
for absorbing water and
minerals from the soil.
Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
Stems
The stem produces branches, leaves, and flowers. It carries
substances between the plant’s roots and leaves, and
provides support for the plant.
Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
Stems
Trees have woody stems. A typical woody stem is made up
of many layers. The layers of xylem form annual rings that
can reveal the age of the tree and the growing conditions it
has experienced.
Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
Leaves
Leaves capture and use
the sun’s energy to make
food. The structure of a
leaf is well-adapted for
photosynthesis.
Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
End of Section:
Roots, Stems,
and Leaves
Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
Section 5:
Reproduction in
Seed Plants
What are the characteristics of gymnosperms
and how do they reproduce?
What are the characteristics of angiosperms?
How do angiosperms reproduce?
What are the two types of angiosperms?
Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
Reproduction in Gymnosperms
First, pollen falls from a
male cone onto a
female cone. In time, a
sperm cell and an egg
cell join together in an
ovule on the female
cone. After fertilization
occurs, the seed
develops on the scale
of the female cone.
Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
The Structure of Flowers
Flowers come in all sorts of shapes, sizes, and colors. But,
despite their differences, all flowers have the same function–
reproduction.
Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
Reproduction in Angiosperms
First, pollen falls on a
flower’s stigma. In time, the
sperm cell and egg cell join
together in the flower’s
ovule. The zygote develops
into the embryo part of the
seed.
Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
Types of Angiosperms
Angiosperms are divided into two major groups: monocots
and dicots.
Chapter 10 Structure and Function of Plants
End of Section:
Reproduction in
Seed Plants