Terrestrial Environments Around the World

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Transcript Terrestrial Environments Around the World

Terrestrial
Environments
Around the World
Foss Science – Environments Kit
Biomes
• Cover large areas of land
• The same biomes may occur in different
parts of the world.
• Specific types of biomes have a similar
climate, soil conditions and average
annual rainfall no matter where they occur
in the world.
Biome #1
Tropical Rainforest
• Has more species of life than any other terrestrial environment.
• Contains 2 million to 20 million species of animals – 80% of life forms
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in the rainforest haven’t even been identified yet!
Located in Australia, Asia, Africa, Central and South America, the
Caribbean Islands, and the Pacific Islands.
Climate is constantly warm and moist (lots of rainfall!)
Trees form a canopy which blocks out light on the forest floor
Soil is shallow and not fertile; trees give plants the nutrients they
need
More animals that live in the rainforest live in the trees than on the
ground
Rainforests are being destroyed to create farmland and to use the
trees for lumber
Biome #2
Temperate Deciduous Forest
• Have variable climates (change during the year) and
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deciduous trees that shed their leaves in fall and grow new
ones in the spring
Animals and plants are able to adapt to changes in heat,
moisture and food. Some hibernate, others grow thick
coats of fur, and many of the birds migrate south.
Receives more rain than any other biome except the
rainforest.
Soil is very rich and is used for farmland when trees are
cleared.
Many are found in the Eastern United States.
Biome #3
Savanna
• Made up of grasslands that have fairly infertile soil
• Found mostly in the tropics
• Often have a season of heavy rainfall followed by a season of
drought
• Some areas have trees and tall grasses that grow to be 10 feet high.
In other savannas, grass grows in short clumps and there are few
trees.
• Grasses have deep roots. If the area catches on fire, grass above
the ground is burned, but the deep roots are protected and allow it
to grow back quickly.
• Wide variety of animal life – zebras, antelope, wildebeests, lions,
hyenas, and cheetahs.
Biome #4
Temperate Grassland
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25% of the Earth’s land surface
Flat or hilly country – cover much of North America
Found in the interiors of continents
Climate is very dry; summers are hot and winters are
often very cold
Grassland soil is very rich in nutrients
Animals have developed ways to survive in the harsh,
extreme conditions
Biome #5
Artic Tundra
• A cold, dry biome located in the far north just below the polar ice
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cap.
Very low temperatures and little rainfall or snow
20% of the Earth’s land surface is tundra.
Soil is permanently frozen – called permafrost.
The growing season is short and plants grow slowly; trees don’t
grow there
Animals adapt to harsh climate conditions of the tundra – polar
bears, caribou, ground squirrels, musk oxen
Alpine tundra is a biome with conditions similar to the Arctic tundra
but are found at the tops of tall mountains all over the world.
Biome #6
Desert
• Moisture evaporates quicker than rainfall can replace it.
• Many types of soil and terrain – rocky, sandy, flat or
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mountainous
20% of Earth’s land surface is desert
The hottest places on earth!
Fewer plant and animal species live here – have to be
able to adapt to the harsh weather conditions
Many animals are nocturnal.
Plants are found far from one another. They store water
in their root systems or stems.
Receives very little rainfall per year.