Bedding Plant Production PPT

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Transcript Bedding Plant Production PPT

Bedding Plant Production
Competencies: 10.00-13.00
Bedding Plant Production
Categories (Click to view)
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Begonias
Geraniums
Impatiens
Marigolds
Pansies
Petunias
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Potential Problems
Media
Transplanting
Wax Begonia
Begonia x semperflorens-cultorum
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Grow 6”-12” high
with pink, red, or
white flowers
Spaced 6”-10” apart
and need direct
sunlight
May be propagated
from seeds or cuttings
and transplanted
Begonia
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Time from seeding to market in packs is
about 14 weeks (16 weeks in pots)
Small seeds should be lightly pressed into
surface of germinating medium
Germination requires light and 65-70
degree F medium temperature
Can be propagated by stem cuttings
Plants do well in full sun to shade
Easily used in the landscape or
hanging baskets!
Geranium
Pelargonium X hortorum
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Grow 12”-18”
Dark green leaves are
rounded with scalloped
margins
Flowers are red, white, or
pink and grow on a long
stem
Flowers have many petals
in a cluster shaped like a
ball
Geranium
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Most popular of all geraniums
sold are red
Over 2/3 of all geraniums are
RED
Direct sunlight is needed
10”-12” spacing is needed
May be propagated from seeds
or cuttings and transplanted
Geraniums
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Time from seeding to market in packs is
about 14 weeks (16 weeks in pots)
Seeds are large and have to be scarified
because of hard seed coats
Seed suppliers usually scarify before
packing for sale. Seeds should be coved
with 1/8 inch of medium
Medium should be about 75 degrees F.
Impatiens
Impatiens walleriana
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Grow 6”-18” high
and have succulent
stems
Lance shaped leaves
Flower colors include
pink, lavender, white,
red, purple, salmon,
and coral.
Impatiens
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Flowers are small and round with five
petals
One flower petal is shaped like a tube that
protrudes from the underside of the flower
(looks like a tail!)
Spaced 12”-18” and needs partial sun or
shade
May be propagated from seeds or cuttings
Seed pod
Impatiens
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Time from seeding to market in packs is
about 8 weeks
Seeds should be placed on surface of
medium and covered lightly
Germination requires light and temperature
of 60-70 degrees F
Have been the number one bedding crop
for many years
Grow well in shade
Hanging baskets >
Landscape use >
Marigold
Tagentes erecta
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Grow from 6” to 4’
tall
Orange or yellow
flowers have a
pungent aroma
Spaced 6”-12” apart
and grow best in full
sunlight
Grown from seeds
and transplanted
Marigolds
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Time from seeding to market in packs is
about 9 weeks (10 weeks in pots)
Seeds should be covered by ¼” of
germinating medium
Medium should be 70-75 degrees F
Outdoor plants should grow in full sun for
best quality
Very few cultural problems
Pansies
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Grow from 6-8” tall
Moon-faced flowers in
many colors (blue,
purple, yellow, white,
pink, red)
Spaced 6-8” in full sun
Grown from seeds and
transplanted
Cool-season bedding
plant
Pansies
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Time from seeding to market in packs is
about 12 weeks (13 weeks in pots)
Seeds should be planted on surface of
medium and covered with paper to keep
dark
Germination medium should be 70 degrees
Fahrenheit
Grow in full sun
Petunias
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Grow from 6”-18”
tall
Flowers have a tubeshaped base
Colors include red,
pink, white, blue, and
pastels
Spaced 10”-12”
Grown from seeds
and transplanted
Petunias
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Time from seeding to market in packs is about 10
weeks (11 weeks in pots)
Sow seeds on surface of medium
Seeds are very small (285,000 per ounce)
Need light and 70-80 degrees F germinating
medium temperature
Many different types and colors
One of top five annuals in the U.S. for over 100
years
Now….use seed catalogs to locate
photos to help you identify these
common bedding plants.
Potential Problems (Click to view)
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Cultural Disorders
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Diseases
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Germination Problems
Fertilization Problems
Uneven growth
Tall and spindly growth
Seedlings falling over
Lower leaves brown, rotting, and drying
Insects
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Plants missing
Holes in leaves or plant parts missing
Cultural-Germination Problems
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Causes
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Improper temperatures
Over-watering or underwatering
Chemical residues in medium
Seed planting depth
Low quality seeds
Cultural-Germination Problems
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Correction or Prevention
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Use high-quality seeds
Plant at proper depth
Use medium with no chemical residues
Maintain proper temperatures
Maintain proper moisture levels
Cultural-Fertilization Problems
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Causes
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Lack of nutrients
Root injury
Improper pH of
medium
Excessive
fertilization
Manganese Deficiency
Cultural-Fertilization Problems
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Correction or Prevention
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Test soil or media
Apply correct amounts and kinds of nutrients
Use pH correcting materials
Cultural-Uneven Growth
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Causes
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Poor mixing of medium
Uneven moisture levels
Unlevel flats
Poor grading of seedlings
Cultural-Uneven Growth
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Correction or Prevention
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Proper mixing of media
Even watering
Grading seedlings by size and quality
Placing flats level
Cultural-Tall and Spindly Growth
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Causes
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Too much nitrogen fertilizer
Overwatering
Low light intensity (too much shade)
High temperatures
Cultural-Tall and Spindly Growth
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Correction or Prevention
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Use the correct amount of nitrogen
Reduce frequency of watering
Lower temperature
Provide more light
Use growth retardant such as B-Nine SP
Diseases-Seedlings Falling Over
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Causes
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Stem rot
Damping-off
Diseases-Seedlings Falling Over
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Correction or Prevention
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Use sterilized media
Apply fungicides
Improve air circulation around plants
Diseases-Brown, rotting leaves
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Causes
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Botrytis
Diseases-Brown, rotting leaves
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Correction or Prevention
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Increase air temperature
Increase air circulation around plants
Use proper fungicide
Insects-Plants Missing
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Causes
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Slugs
Snails
Cockroaches
Insects-Plants Missing
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Correction or
Prevention
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Use baits and
pesticides
Insects-Holes in Leaves
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Causes
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Aphids
Mealy Bugs
Scale Insects
Thrips
Whiteflies
Flea beetles
Fungus Gnats
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Leaf miners
Cutworms
Caterpillars
Insects-Holes in Leaves
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Correction or
Prevention
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Use of
recommended
pesticides to control
insects
Bedding Plant Media
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Media-materials used to start and grow
plants
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Soil
Inorganic materials
Commercially prepared mixes
Soil
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Soil must be mixed with other materials
such as peat moss to add organic matter
and improve aeration and drainage.
Inorganic Materials
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Improve aeration and drainage
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Sand-finely ground stone
Gravel
Perlite
Expanded volcanic rock
 Neutral pH 7.0-7.5
 sterile
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Vermiculite
Expanded mica
 sterile
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Commercially Prepared Mixes
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Sterile (no insects, weeds, or diseases)
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Jiffy-Mix
Redi-Earth
Pro-Mix
Sunshine Mix
Metro Mix
Other brands also available
Containers
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Flat-plastic tray used for planting seeds
Cell packs-several small cell-like pots of
plastic molded together used for planting
one or two seeds per cell
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Sold without transplanting to another
container
Peat pots can be planted directly in the soil
Jiffy 7 pellet can be planted directly in the
soil
Containers
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Plastic pots of various sizes and shapes
Clay pots of various sizes and shapes
Styrofoam pots of various sizes
Hanging baskets
Standard pot is the same width at the top as
it is high
Azalea pot is ¾ as high as its top diameter
or width
Transplanting Basics
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Seedlings should have true leaves not just
seed leaves or cotyledons before being
transplanted. Waiting too long to
transplant causes shock to transplanted
seedlings.
1st True leaves
Seed leaves
Transplanting Instructions
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Hold plants by their leaves. Do not hold
by the stem because a badly bruised stem
will cause the seedling to die.
The media (soil) may need to be loosened
with a pot label to keep from breaking
stem and roots. Do not shake medium off
roots.
Transplanting Instructions
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Use a dibble or other
means to make a
hole for the
transplanting
seedling.
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Helps with uniformity
Transplanting Instructions
5. Plant seedling in the media in the new
container slightly deeper than it grew in the
flat and gently press media around roots.
Transplanting Instructions
6. Water gently to settle
media around roots.
Transplanting Instructions
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Keep moist for a few days to prevent
wilting and dying.
Grow and harden-off before selling.