Figure 7.1

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Transcript Figure 7.1

Chapter 7
Leaves
© 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Functional Biology of Plants
Martin J. Hodson and John A. Bryant
© 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Figure 7.1 Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) has fan-shaped leaves that are normally 5–10 cm
long. Here the leaves were photographed in the autumn in Paris, France. Photo: MJH.
Functional Biology of Plants
Martin J. Hodson and John A. Bryant
© 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Figure 7.2 Japanese maple (Acer palmatum) is a woody plant native to Asia. The
leaves, here photographed in the autumn, are palmately lobed and are 4–12 cm
long and wide. Photo: Margot Hodson. Used with the permission of Westonbirt
Arboretum, Tetbury, Gloucestershire, UK.
Functional Biology of Plants
Martin J. Hodson and John A. Bryant
© 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Figure 7.3 Anatomy of a typical eudicot leaf. From: Campbell, Neil A., BIOLOGY,
2nd Edition © 1990. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education, Inc., Upper
Saddle River, NJ.
Functional Biology of Plants
Martin J. Hodson and John A. Bryant
© 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Figure 7.4 Overview of photosynthesis illustrating the interactions between the light
reactions and the Calvin cycle in the chloroplast.
Functional Biology of Plants
Martin J. Hodson and John A. Bryant
© 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Figure 7.5 Absorbance spectra of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids.
Functional Biology of Plants
Martin J. Hodson and John A. Bryant
© 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Figure 7.6 The structure of chlorophyll a and b molecules. When R = –CH3 the
molecule is chlorophyll a, and when it is–CHO it is chlorophyll b.
Functional Biology of Plants
Martin J. Hodson and John A. Bryant
© 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Figure 7.7 Non-cyclic photophosphorylation – the Z scheme for electron transport.
Key: P680, reaction centre of photosystem II; P700, reaction centre of photosystem
I; Phe, Pheophytin; PQ, plastoquinone; Cyt b6/f, a cytochrome complex; PC,
plastocyanin; fd, ferredoxin. Numbers 1 to 6 refer to text in Section 7.4.3.
Functional Biology of Plants
Martin J. Hodson and John A. Bryant
© 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Figure 7.8 Cyclic photophosphorylation. Key as in Figure 7.7.
Functional Biology of Plants
Martin J. Hodson and John A. Bryant
© 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Figure 7.9 The Calvin Cycle. This can be divided into three main sections: carbon
fixation; reduction; and the regeneration of the CO2 acceptor.
Functional Biology of Plants
Martin J. Hodson and John A. Bryant
© 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Figure 7.10 The photorespiratory carbon oxidation (PCO) cycle. Numbers refer to
text in Section 7.5.1.
Functional Biology of Plants
Martin J. Hodson and John A. Bryant
© 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Figure 7.11 Maize or ‘corn’ (Zea mays), the most important C4 crop. Here the plants
were photographed in the summer in Odcombe, Somerset, England. Photo: MJH.
Functional Biology of Plants
Martin J. Hodson and John A. Bryant
© 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Figure 7.12 Light micrograph of a transverse section through a maize or corn (Zea
mays) leaf. Key: Epidermis (Ep), Stoma (St) Bundle Sheath (BS), Mesophyll (Me).
Photo: Prof. Thomas Rost.
Functional Biology of Plants
Martin J. Hodson and John A. Bryant
© 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Figure 7.13 General plan of the photosynthetic C4 cycle.
Functional Biology of Plants
Martin J. Hodson and John A. Bryant
© 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Figure 7.14 Common ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum), a succulent with
CAM photosynthesis. Here photographed near the coast of the Alvor Estuary, the
Algarve, Portugal. Photo: MJH.
Functional Biology of Plants
Martin J. Hodson and John A. Bryant
© 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Figure 7.15 The biochemistry of crassulacean acid metabolism. The curves above show carbon dioxide
uptake and acidity of the cell sap over 24 hours. Below, left: the stomata are open at night to allow carbon
dioxide entry, then this is then fixed into malic acid. Below, right: the stomata are closed to conserve water in
the day and stored carbon dioxide is released to be assimilated via the Calvin Cycle. From Hopkins, 1999.
Used with the permission of John Wiley publishers.
Functional Biology of Plants
Martin J. Hodson and John A. Bryant
© 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Figure 7.16 Magnolia sp. leaf peel showing kidney-shaped stomata. Photo: Prof.
Thomas Rost.
Functional Biology of Plants
Martin J. Hodson and John A. Bryant
© 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Figure 7.17 A simple model showing ion flow in guard cells that occurs during
stomatal opening. From Hopkins, 1999. Used with the permission of John Wiley
publishers.
Functional Biology of Plants
Martin J. Hodson and John A. Bryant
© 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Figure 7.18 Sugar maples (Acer saccharum) in autumn colours. Photographed at
Kanawha State Forest near Charleston, West Virginia, USA. Photo: JAB.
Functional Biology of Plants
Martin J. Hodson and John A. Bryant
© 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.