Unit 6 Study Guide Answers

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Transcript Unit 6 Study Guide Answers

Unit 4 Study Guide
The Atmosphere
PART 1
a.Weather - constantly changing, refers to the
state of the atmosphere at any given place
and time.
b. Climate - Observations that have been
based over many years (describe a place or
region)
c. Revolution - Around the orbit (year)
d. Heat - Energy transferred from one object to
another, a difference in temperature.
e. Rotation - Spinning around on the axis (day).
f. Temperature - the measure of the average
energy in an individual object.
g. Latent Heat - Use to melt ice that does not
produced a temperature change (hidden).
h. Absorption - when clouds absorb solar
energy and heat up the atmosphere.
i. Dew Point - the temperature at which a parcel
of air would need to be cooler to reach
saturation.
2. Unstable air tends to rise and cause lots of
bad weather.
3. Explain what causes the different seasons.
Earth’s tilt and its location in its orbit.
4. What is water vapor the source of?
Condensation (clouds) and precipitation
5. Explain the difference between humidity and
relative humidity.
Humidity - how much water vapor is in the
air.
Relative Humidity - a ratio of the actual
water vapor content compared to the amount of
water vapor air can hold.
6. List the layers of the atmosphere and one
thing that occurs in that layer.
Troposphere - where weather occurs
Stratosphere - where you find the ozone
Mesosphere – where you find most
satelites
Thermosphere - outermost layer of the
atmosphere
7. What are the major components of the
atmosphere?
Nitrogen, Oxygen, Argon/Carbon Dioxide
8. Give an example of a primary source, secondary
source, and photochemical source of pollution.
Primary - car exhaust pipe
Secondary - aerosol cans
Photochemical - CFC’s
9. Explain the three ways heat is transferred.
Conduction - by touch
Convection - through circulation
Radiation - travel through space
10. List the different types of ways that
temperature is controlled.
1.Land - heats and cools rapidly, high and
lower temp, high temp variations
2.Water - heats and cools slowly and has
more regulated temp
3.Geographic Position - Based on
coastal/land windward has coastal seasons;
leeward has continental seasons
10. cont
4. Altitude - Elevation from sea level
5. Cloud Cover - helping to act as a blanket or
reflected surface for solar radiation
6. Albedo - the amount of reflection of the sun
off a surface.
7. Isotherms - lines of equal temperatures,
allows us to study global temperature patterns.
11.) Explain the four ways that air is lifted.
1.Orographic Lifting - elevated terrains act as
barriers
2.Frontal Wedging - when warm air and cool
air combine to create a front
3.Convergence - when the atmosphere flows
together as it rises.
4.Convective Lifting - the heating and lifting of
air, creating thermals.
PART 2
a.) Wind - A result of horizontal differences in
air pressure.
b.) Coriolis Effect - the deflection of wind due to
the rotation of the Earth.
c.) Anticyclones - pressure increases from
outside to center, winds blow outward and
clockwise, net flow=outward
d.) Cyclones - pressure decreases from outer
to center, winds blow inward and
counterclockwise, net flow = inward
e.) Monsoon - seasonal change in the wind
direction, lots of rain
f.) Local Winds - caused by either topographic
effects or by variations in surface composition
13. What is the difference between a close
isobar and a far apart isobar?
Close = high winds
Far Apart = low winds
14. A low pressure system is where you are
more likely to find bad weather.
15. What is the difference between a mountain
breeze and a valley breeze?
Mountain - cooling at night, air moves into
the valley
Valley - heats during the day, warm air
rises
PART 3
a.) Front - when two air masses meet, form a
front, a boundary that separates two air
masses.
b.) Storm Surge - the damaging force that is
brought with a hurricane as it approaches the
shoreline.
17. Explain what an air mass is, how it moves,
and what it brings with it when it moves.
A large area of weather that is
characterized by similar temperatures and
amounts of moisture, moves out of the region
(changes as it moves), and takes moisture and
temp with it.
18. How are thunderstorms formed?
The vertical movements of warm unstable
air that can lead to a thunderstorm.
19. When an occluded front forms during a
middle latitude cyclone, the storm will get
stronger.
20. What are four ways natural climate change
can occur? Explain each.
1.Volcanic Eruptions - emits large amounts of
ash and dust into the atmosphere
2.Ocean Circulation - El Nino
3.Solar Activity - changes in the outputs of the
solar energy (sunspots)
4.Earth Motions - tectonic plate movements;
rotation, revolution, precession and nutation
21. Explain a tornado
- a violent windstorm that takes the form of a
rotation of air called a vortex that extends
downward
- wind speed measured by the Fujita Scale
and amount of damage caused.
22. Explain a hurricane
- a heat engine that is fueled by the energy
given off when huge quantities of water
vapor condense
- Intensity measured by the Saffir - Simpson
Scale
23. Types of Fronts
1. Warm Front - forms when warm air moves into an area
that formerly was cooler air, red lines and semicircles
2. Cold Front - when cold dense air moves into a region
occupied by warm air, blue lines and triangles
3. Occluded Front - when an active cold front overtakes a
warm front, blue triangles and red semicircles shown on
both sides of the front line.
4. Stationary Front - when the surface position of the front
does not move, blue triangles on one side and red
semicircles on the other side of the fault.