Warm up question

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Transcript Warm up question

This is due at the end of class
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Warm up question: List the 4 layers of the
atmosphere and explain the differences
Exit: What is reflection
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describe the layers of the atmosphere
Essential Question
Explain how radiant energy reaches
the earth.
Homework
Read pages 455-462 : answer questions on page 462
Vocabulary page 474 ; define and give one fact
Read page 463-468 ; answer questions on page 468
Study for vocabulary quiz on Friday
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describe the layers of the atmosphere
Chapter 23 standards
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Energy enters the Earth system primarily as solar radiation
and eventually escapes as heat. As a basis for understanding
this concept:
Heating of Earth's surface and atmosphere by the sun drives
convection within the atmosphere and oceans, producing
winds and ocean currents. As a basis for understanding this
concept:
Climate is the long-term average of a region's weather and
depends on many factors. As a basis for understanding this
concept:
Life has changed Earth's atmosphere, and changes in the
atmosphere affect conditions for life. As a basis for
understanding this concept:
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Chapter 23 Section 1 notes
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Characteristics of the
Atmosphere ; page 455
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Atmosphere is a layer
of gases and particles
that surround the earth.
Meteorologist – study
climate and weather
describe the layers of the atmosphere
Chapter 23 Section 1 notes
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Composition of the
atmosphere ; page 455
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Most abundant gases in
atmosphere – SEA LEVEL
up to 50 MILES UP
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Atmosphere also has…….
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Nitrogen
Oxygen
Argon
describe the layers of the atmosphere
Water – not on graph
because of varying amounts
Carbon Dioxide – VERY
small amount
Ozone – much higher
concentration in
STRATOSPHERE
Chapter 23 Section 1 notes
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Oxygen in the atmosphere ;
page 456
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describe the layers of the atmosphere
Oxygen is a chemical
process to maintain a
balance.
Animals, plants, bacteria,
forest fires, burning of
fuels, and weathering all
use up oxygen.
Land and plants produce
oxygen through
photosynthesis.
Chapter 23 Section 1 notes
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Nitrogen in the atmosphere
; page 457
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Nitrogen fixing bacteria
remove it from the air and
fix it into the soil
The bacteria changes it into
nitrogen compounds that
plants use for growth.
Animals eat the plants and
return the nitrogen to the
air and soil from the
release of waste
describe the layers of the atmosphere
Chapter 23 Section 1 notes
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Atmospheric pressure ;
page 457
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The closer you are to
the surface the more air
pressure there is – 99%
of the air is within
32 Km of the surface,
Mount Everest is
0.885 Km
describe the layers of the atmosphere
Chapter 23 Section 1 notes
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Mercurial Barometer ; page
458
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It measures the amount of
air pressure on a pool of
mercury.
We measure the movement
up and down a tube – 760
mm is the average pressure
at sea level.
Weather maps use
millibars – one millibars is
0.001 of standard pressure
describe the layers of the atmosphere
Chapter 23 Section 1 notes
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Aneroid Barometer ;
page 459
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Is a canister that has a
vacuum inside – the
sides flexing tell the
pressure.
It can also be used to
measure altitude and is
called an altimeter.
describe the layers of the atmosphere
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describe the layers of the atmosphere
Chapter 23 Section 1 notes
Layers of the Atmosphere
; page 459
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creasing Air Pressure
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Layers are not set by
pressure changes, but
by changes in
temperature.
Solar energy
absorption is
responsible.
There are 4 layers
describe the layers of the atmosphere
Chapter 23 Section 1 notes
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The Troposphere ; page
460
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The layer closest to the
surface – means change
Almost all weather, water
vapor and carbon dioxide
are found here.
Temperature decrease with
altitude by 6.5 degrees km,
at 10 km the temp levels
off and is called the
Tropopause.
Latitude and seasons affect
the level.
describe the layers of the atmosphere
Chapter 23 Section 1 notes
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The stratosphere ; page Starts at the Tropopause
460
and extends up to 50 km.
 Temp starts at -60 degrees
and gets warmer with
altitude.
 This increase is due to the
ozone layer.
 The high temperature point
is called the Stratopause
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Chapter 23 Section 1 notes
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The Mesosphere ; page
461
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Starts at Stratopause
and up to 80 km.
Temp decrease with
altitude and reaches the
coldest at -90 degrees.
At the Mesopause temp
begins to increase.
describe the layers of the atmosphere
Chapter 23 Section 1 notes
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The Thermosphere ; page
461
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Thermosphere is
HOTTEST layer due to
solar energy absorption by
Oxygen & Nitrogen (2,000
degrees)
Ionosphere found in lower
Thermosphere
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Responsible for radio wave
reflection around Earth
Above the Thermosphere is
the Exosphere, goes up into
space
describe the layers of the atmosphere
What is happening to the air pressure as you move up through
the atmosphere?
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Chapter 23 Section 1 notes
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Air Pollution ; page 462
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ANY substance in the atmosphere
that is harmful to people, animals or
PROPERTY is an air pollutant.
Main source: FOSSIL FUELS
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Burning of coal and petroleum
fuels
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describe the layers of the atmosphere
Acid rain – sulfur compounds
released combine with rain in
clouds and fall to Earth
Acid Rain poisons wildlife, soil
and human water supply in
addition to corroding metal
found on most exposed
buildings
Chapter 23 Section 1 notes
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Temperature inversion
; page 462
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Normally, warm air rises
above colder air moving
polluted air away from
land
A Temperature Inversion
occurs when COLD air is
trapped under WARM air,
keeping polluted air next
to the ground
describe the layers of the atmosphere
Los Angeles & Denver:
Smog Capitals
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Chapter 23 Section 2 notes
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Solar Energy and the
Atmosphere
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The earth is heated by
energy being absorbed
by certain gases in the
atmosphere.
It is also heated by
radiated heat from the
oceans and land
describe the layers of the atmosphere
Chapter 23 Section 2 notes
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Radiation
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All energy travels from sun
in form of Electromagnetic
Radiation
The shorter the wavelength
– HIGHER ENERGY
describe the layers of the atmosphere
Energy Absorption by Layer
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X-Rays, Gamma Rays and
UV rays are absorbed by
Nitrogen and Oxygen in the
thermosphere
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Nitrogen and oxygen
stripped of electrons – Ions
– form Ionosphere - a layer
in lower thermosphere that
blocks and reflects radio
waves
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UV light absorbed by ozone
in stratosphere
Ionosphere
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Chapter 23 Section 2 notes
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Scattering
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Water droplets, dust
and gases in the
atmosphere bend and
reflect light.
The sky is blue because
it scatters more easily.
A sunset or sunrise is
red because the blue is
scattered away from
the sun
describe the layers of the atmosphere
Chapter 23 Section 2 notes
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Reflection
100% of Solar
Energy
20% Absorbed
by Clouds,
dust & gases
30% Reflected by
clouds, dust, gas
and Earth
50% Absorbed by Earth’s
Surface
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Oceans
The Albedo is the fraction ofLand
light&reflected
– for the Earth, the
Albedo is 0.3
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Chapter 23 Section 2 notes
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Absorption and infrared Energy
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The solar energy not reflected is
ABSORBED by the Earth.
When warmed, the Earth gives
off its own IR rays
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Where the Ozone layer filters
out HARMFUL UV light, the
ozone layer reflects IR energy
given off by the Earth
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Ex. IR Night Vision – used by
military and police, one can see
objects in complete darkness by
IR energy they give off.
describe the layers of the atmosphere
See figure 23-10 – p.466
Chapter 23 Section 2 notes
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The greenhouse effect
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http://earthguide.ucsd.e
du/earthguide/diagrams
/greenhouse/
describe the layers of the atmosphere
Chapter 23 Section 2 notes
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Variations in
temperature
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Latitude effects the
amount of light you
get.
The closer to the
equator the more light
and the warmer it gets.
Water helps moderate
the temperature on
land.
describe the layers of the atmosphere
Chapter 23 Section 2 notes
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Conduction and
convection
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In conduction the
molecules move faster
to transfer heat, but
since air is so far apart
it does not transfer heat
well.
In convection warm air
moves up and cold air
moves down.
describe the layers of the atmosphere
Chapter 23 Section 3 notes
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Winds
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At the equator is low
pressure, High pressure
at the poles.
This causes global
winds to balance the
difference.
describe the layers of the atmosphere
Chapter 23 Section 3 notes
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Global winds
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Winds and ocean current
are affected by earth’s
rotation.
Coriolis effect: deflected
to right in the north and
left in the south
There are three convection
cells in the northern
hemisphere. (equator-30,
30-60,60-pole)
describe the layers of the atmosphere
Chapter 23 Section 3 notes
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Trade winds
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Winds are named for the
direction they come from.
Northeast trades and
southeast trades.
Meet at the equator in a
zone called the doldrums –
low
At 30 degrees is the horse
latitudes – a banned of
high pressure
describe the layers of the atmosphere
Chapter 23 Section 3 notes
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Westerlies
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Westerlies blow from
the southwest in the
north and the northwest
in the south.
Located between 40
and 60 degrees.
Blow across the United
States.
describe the layers of the atmosphere
Chapter 23 Section 3 notes
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Polar Easterlies
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Result of polar high
pressure.
Strongest off
Antarctica, where they
meet warm air from the
Westerlies.
Deflected by the
Coriolis effect.
describe the layers of the atmosphere
Chapter 23 Section 3 notes
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Wind and pressure shifts
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Jet streams
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Wind belts shift with the
seasons.
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Formed at cell boundaries,
very fast and changing in mid
latitudes. Steady and
unchanging in tropical areas.
Form at 10 to 15 km up, 100
km wide and 2 to 3 km thick
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Chapter 23 Section 3 notes
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Local Winds
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Cover a distance of less
then 100km or breezes.
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Land and sea breezes
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Uneven heating of land
and water cause
breezes to form, inland
during the day and out
to sea at night.
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Chapter 23 Section 3 notes
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Mountain and Valley
breezes
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Warm valley air moves
up the mountains
during the day, the
mountain air cools
faster after sunset and
descends back into the
valley.
describe the layers of the atmosphere
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describe the layers of the atmosphere
Chapter 23 extra credit opportunities
Write questions and answers out completely.
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1.
2.
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Pages 474 – 475
Review questions 1 – 12
describe the layers of the atmosphere
Group Drawings
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Group 1 – page 177
Group 2 – page 408
Group 3 – page 410
Group 4 – page 416
Group 5 – page 429
Group 6 – page 431
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Group 7 – page 455
Group 8 – page 456
Group 9 – page 457
Group 10 – page 460
Group 11 – page 465
Group 12 – page 472
describe the layers of the atmosphere
How to phrase your statement
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I believe the ___________ will ___________.
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Lab – Atmospheric Pressure ( page 457)
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Materials
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1.
Air pump
Bell Chamber
Marshmallows
Water bottles – empty ,
half full
Shaving cream
Balloons – one closed,
one open
2.
3.
Write a prediction of
what will happen to
the item in the
chamber.
Observe what happens
and write it down.
Did it do what you
thought, why or why
not.
describe the layers of the atmosphere
Vocabulary Quiz – Chapter 23
Define these terms in your own words.
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2.
3.
4.
5.
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Weather
Climate
Ozone
Nitrogen cycle
Atmospheric pressure
describe the layers of the atmosphere