You Light Up My Life

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Transcript You Light Up My Life

Climate and Biodiversity
Chapter 5
Sections 1-4
Key Concepts

Factors influencing the Earth’s climates

Effect of climate on Earth’s major biomes

Characteristics of major biome types

Human impacts on the biosphere
Blowing in the Wind

Benefits of wind

Hazards of wind

“Red tides”

Volcanoes and climate

Everything is connected
Fig. 5-1, p. 78
Blowing in the Wind
Fig. 5-1, p. 78
Weather and Climate

Differences between weather and climate

Major factors determining climate
• Uneven heating of Earth’s surface
• Earth’s rotation
• Properties of air, water, and land
Earth’s Climatic Zones
Fig. 5-2, p. 80
Earth’s Rotation and Climate
60ºN
Cold deserts
Westerlies
Northeast trades
Forests
Hot deserts
30ºN
Forests
Equator
Southeast trades
Westerlies
0º
Hot deserts
30ºs
Forests
Cold deserts
60ºS
Fig. 5-3, p. 80
Fig. 5-3, p. 80
Global Air Circulation and Biomes
Cell 3 North
Cold,dry air falls
Moist air rises — rain
Polar cap
Arctic tundra
Cell 2 North
Evergreen
60° coniferous forest
Temperate deciduous
forest and grassland
Desert
30°
Cool, dry
air falls
Cell 1 North
Moist
air rises,
cools, and
releases
moisture
as rain
Tropical deciduous forest
0° Equator
Tropical
rain forest
Tropical deciduous forest
30°
Desert
Temperate
deciduous
60° forest and
grassland
Cell 1 South
Cool, dry
air falls
Cell 2 South
Polar cap
Cold,dry air falls
Moist air rises — rain
Cell 3 South
Fig. 5-4, p. 81
Effects of Water, Wind, and Land
on Climate

Ocean currents and wind

Gases in the atmosphere
• Greenhouse gases and the Greenhouse Effect

Topography and local climate

Microclimates in urban areas
Natural Greenhouse Effect
(a) Rays of sunlight
penetrate the lower
atmosphere and
warm the earth's surface.
(b) The earth's surface absorbs much of
the incoming solar radiation and
degrades it to longer-wavelength
infrared (IR) radiation, which rises into
the lower atmosphere. Some of this IR
radiation escapes into space
as heat and some is absorbed by
molecules of greenhouse gases and
emitted as even longer wave-length IR
radiation, which warms the lower
atmosphere.
(c) As concentrations of
green-house gases rise,
their molecules absorb and
emit more infrared radiation,
which adds more heat to the
lower atmosphere.
Fig. 5-5, p. 82
Rain Shadow Effect
Prevailing winds
pick up moisture
from an ocean.
On the windward
side of a mountain range,
air rises, cools, and
releases moisture.
On the leeward side of the
mountain range, air descends,
warms, and releases little
moisture.
Dry habitats
Moist habitats
Fig. 5-6, p. 82
Biomes

Climate effects on biomes

12 major biomes

Biomes are not uniform (“mosaic of patches”)

Effects of latitude and longitude
Earth’s Major Biomes
Tropic of
Cancer
Equator
Tropic of
Capricorn
Arctic tundra (polar grasslands)
Boreal forest (taiga), evergreen conif
forest (e.g., montane coniferous forest)
Temperate deciduous forest
Desert
Tropical rain forest,
tropical evergreen forest
Tropical deciduous forest
Temperate grassland
Tropical scrub forest
Dry woodlands and
shrublands (chaparral)
Tropical savanna, thorn
forest
Semidesert,
arid grassland
Mountains
(complex zonation)
Ice
Fig. 5-7, p. 83
Precipitation and Temperature
Affects Biome Type
Polar
Tundra
Subpolar
Temperate
Coniferous forest
Desert
Deciduous
forest
Grassland
Tropical
Chaparral
Desert
Savanna
Rain forest
Tropical
seasonal
forest
Scrubland
Fig. 5-8, p. 84
Effects of Altitude and Latitude
on Climate and Biomes
Altitude
Mountain
Ice and snow
Tundra (herbs,
lichens,
mosses)
Coniferous
Forest
Deciduous
Forest
Latitude
Tropical
Forest
Tropical
Forest
Deciduous
Forest
Coniferous
Forest
Tundra (herbs,
lichens, mosses)
Polar ice
and snow
Fig. 5-9, p. 85
Biomes: Climates and Life

Deserts

Grassland

Forests

Mountains

Aquatic biomes
Deserts

What is a desert?

Tropical deserts

Temperate deserts

Cold deserts

Human impacts on deserts
Temperate Desert Ecosystem
Red-tailed hawk
Gambel's
quail
Producer
to primary
consumer
Yucca
Jack
rabbit
Agave
Collared
lizard
Prickly
pear
cactus
Roadrunner
Primary
to secondary
consumer
Secondary to
higher-level
consumer
Darkling
beetle
Bacteria
Diamondback
rattlesnake
Fungi
Kangaroo rat
All producers and
consumers to
decomposers
Fig. 5-10a, p. 86
Temperate Desert in Nevada, USA
Fig. 5-10b, p. 86
Major Human Impacts on Deserts
Large desert cities
Soil destruction by offroad vehicles and urban
development
Soil sanitization from
irrigation
Depletion of underground
water supplies
Land disturbance and
pollution from mineral
extraction
Storage of toxic and
radioactive wastes
Large arrays of solar cells
and solar collectors used
to produce electricity
Fig. 5-11, p. 87
Grasslands

Effects of drought, herbivores, and fires

Savanna

Grazers and browsers

Temperate grasslands

Prairies

Tundra

Permafrost
Temperate Tall-grass Prairie Ecosystem
Golden eagle
Pronghorn antelope
Grasshopper
sparrow
Coyote
Producer
to primary
consumer
Primary
to secondary
consumer
Grasshopper
Secondary to
higher-level
consumer
Blue stem
grass
Prairie
dog
Bacteria
All producers and
consumers to
decomposers
Fungi
Prairie
coneflower
Fig. 5-12, p. 88
Replacing Temperate Grassland with
Farms
Fig. 5-13, p. 88
Arctic Tundra in Winter and Summer
Fig. 5-14, p. 89
Human Impacts on Grasslands
Natural Capital Degradation
Grasslands
Conversion of savanna and
temperate grasslands to cropland
Release of CO2 to atmosphere from
burning and conversion of
grassland to cropland
Overgrazing of tropical and
temperate grasslands by livestock
Damage to fragile arctic tundra by
oil production, air and water
pollution, and off-road vehicles
Fig. 5-15, p. 89
Forests

Types of forests

Tropical rain forests

Broadleaf evergreen plants

Temperate deciduous forests

Broadleaf deciduous forests

Evergreen coniferous forests (boreal and taigas)

Muskegs

Coastal coniferous (temperate rain) forests
Tropical Rain Forest Ecosystem
Harpy
eagle
Blue and
gold
macaw
Ocelot
Producer
to primary
consumer
Squirrel
monkeys
Climbing
monstera palm
Slaty-tailed
trogon
Primary
to secondary
consumer
Katydid
Green tree snake
Tree frog
Secondary to
higher-level
consumer
Ants
Bacteria
Fungi
Bromeliad
All producers and
consumers to
decomposers
Fig. 5-16, p. 90
Stratification of Niches in a Tropical Rain Forest
45
Emergent
layer
Harpy
eagle
40
Height (meters)
35
Toco
toucan
Canopy
30
25
20
Understory
Wooly
opossum
15
10
Brazilian
tapir
5
Black-crowned
antpitta
0
Shrub
layer
Ground
layer
Fig. 5-17, p. 91
Temperate Deciduous Forest Ecosystem
Broad-winged
hawk
Producer
to primary
consumer
Hairy
woodpecker
Gray
squirrel
White oak
White-footed
mouse
White-tailed
deer
Metallic woodboring beetle
and larvae
Mountain
winterberry
Shagbark hickory
May beetle
Fungi
Bacteria
Long-tailed
weasel
Primary
to secondary
consumer
Racer
Secondary to
higher-level
consumer
All producers and
consumers to
decomposers
Wood frog
Fig. 5-18a, p. 92
Temperate Deciduous Forest in Fall
and Winter
Fig. 5-18b-c, p. 92
Evergreen Coniferous Forest Ecosystem
Great
horned
owl
Blue jay
Producer
to primary
consumer
Marten
Balsam fir
Moose
White
spruce
Primary
to secondary
consumer
Wolf
Bebb
willow
Pine sawyer
beetle and
larvae
Secondary to
higher-level
consumer
Snowshoe
hare
All producers and
consumers to
decomposers
Fungi
Starflower
Bacteria
Bunchberry
Fig. 5-19a, p. 93
Evergreen Coniferous Forest in Alaska
Fig. 5-19b, p. 93
Human Impacts on Forests
Natural Capital Degradation
Forests
Clearing and degradation of tropical
forests for agriculture, livestock
grazing, and timber harvesting
Clearing of temperate deciduous
forests in Europe, Asia, and North
America for timber, agriculture, and
urban development
Clearing of evergreen coniferous
forests in North America, Finland,
Sweden, Canada, Siberia, and Russia
Conversion of diverse forests to
less biodiverse tree plantations
Damage to soils from off-road
vehicles
Fig. 5-20, p. 94
Mountains

What is a mountain?

Ecological importance of mountains

“Islands of biodiversity”

Climate regulation

Mountain glaciers and effects on sea level

Impact on hydrologic cycle

Human impacts on mountains
Forests near Mt. Rainer, Washington
Fig. 5-21, p. 94
Human Impacts on Mountains
Natural Capital Degradation
Mountains
Landless poor migrating
uphill to survive
Timber extraction
Mineral resource extraction
Hydroelectric dams and
reservoirs
Increasing tourism (such
as hiking and skiing)
Air pollution from industrial
and urban centers
Increased ultraviolet radiation from ozone depletion
Soil damage from off-road
vehicles
Fig. 5-22, p. 95