Honors 3rd 9 wks exam study guide

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Transcript Honors 3rd 9 wks exam study guide

3rd Nine Weeks Exam
Honors Study Guide
1. What kind of weathering
causes the mineral composition of
rocks to change?
• (chemical weathering)
2. Geologists infer from the
rounded, eroded shapes of the
Appalachian Mountains that
• (the mountains have been eroding
for millions of years)
3. A permeable rock weathers
easily because it
• (contains many small, connected air
4. Soil that is rich in humus has
• (fertility)
5. The type of soil called loam is
made up of
• (nearly equal amounts of silt, sand,
and clay.)
6. Living organisms in soil help to
• (mix the soil and make humus.)
7. What can cause the loss of soil
that is not protected by plant
• (erosion by water or wind)
8. The practice of plowing fields
along the curves of a slope is called
• (contour plowing)
9. What soil particles are the
• (gravel)
10. What are nematodes?
• (tiny worms that live in soil)
11. The process by which natural
forces move weathered rock and
soil from one place to another is
• (erosion)
12. Landslides, mudflows, slump,
and creep are all examples of
• (mass movement)
13. Mass movement is caused by
• (gravity)
14. A stream or river that runs into
another stream or river is called a
• (tributary)
15. Water erosion begins when runoff
from rainfall flows in a thin layer over
the land in a kind of erosion called
• (sheet erosion)
16. Deltas are built up by
• (deposition)
17. What is one main difference
between continental glaciers and
valley glaciers?
• (Continental glaciers are much larger and
18. After the last ice age, stranded
ice blocks left behind by the
continental glacier melted and
• (kettles)
19. The energy that produces
ocean waves comes from
• (wind blowing across the water’s surface.)
20. Particles of clay and silt eroded
and deposited by the wind are
• (loess)
21. A large stream of moving water
that flows through the oceans is called
• (current)
22. Plants use water to
• (make their own food.)
23. Approximately what
percentage of Earth’s water is fresh
• (3%)
24. Water that fills the cracks and
spaces in underground soil and
rock layers is called
• (groundwater)
25. Water that falls to Earth as
rain, snow, sleet, or hail is called
• (precipitation)
26. Salinity is a measure of which
of the following in water?
• (dissolved salts)
27. As you descend through the
water column,
• (temperature decreases)
28. What percent of our
atmosphere is made up of oxygen?
• (21%)
29. Which of the following
features form where old ocean
floor sinks back toward the
• (trench)
30. What causes cold, deep
currents to form in the oceans near
the poles?
• (sinking of dense, cold water with high
31. What percent of our
atmosphere is made up of gases
other than oxygen and nitrogen?
• (1%)
32. Which of the following
describes an example of the
atmosphere acting as a system?
• (global wind patterns)
33. The less mass in a given
volume of air, the
• (less dense the air.)
34. Instruments used to measure
air pressure are called
• (barometers)
35. As you rise upwards in the
atmosphere, air pressure
• (decreases)
36. The layer of our atmosphere in
which weather occurs is the
• (troposphere)
37. The greenhouse effect is
• (the process by which gases hold
heat in the atmosphere.)
38. Cool air tends to
• (be more dense and flow under
warm air.)
39. Local winds differ from global
winds because they
• (are caused by unequal heating
within a small area.)
40. Earth’s rotation makes global
winds curve. This is called the
• (Coriolis effect)
41. What is the name of the
process by which water vapor
enters the atmosphere during the
water cycle?
• (evaporation)
42. Relative humidity can be
measured with a(an)
• (psychrometer)
43. Two conditions are required
for cloud formation: cooling of the
air and
• (the presence of particles in the air.)
44. Very high feathery clouds are
• (cirrus clouds)
45. What you find in the
• (weather balloon)
46. Cold, dry air affecting the
northern United States in winter often
comes from
• (continental polar air masses.)
47. Weather associated with an
anticyclone is generally
• (dry and clear.)
48. What is measured using the
Enhanced Fujita scale?
• (tornado damage)
49. The collecting of weather data
in the last 40 years has been
improved mostly by
• (balloons and satellites)
50. The most dangerous aspect of a
snowstorm is often the
• (high winds.)
51. Approximately what
percentage of Earth’s water is salt
• (97%)
52. Water that fills the cracks and
spaces in underground soil and
rock layers.
• (groundwater)
53. The process by which water is
lost through a plant’s leaves.
• (transpiration)
54. The condition of Earth’s
atmosphere at a particular time and
• (weather)
55. The outer most layer of Earth’s
• (thermosphere)
56. A measure of the amount of
water vapor in the air.
• (humidity)
57. Bands of high-speed winds
about 10 km above Earth’s surface.
• (jet streams)
58. A huge body of air in the lower
atmosphere that has similar
temperature, humidity, and air
pressure at any given height.
• (air mass)
59. Move away temporarily.
• (evacuate)
60. The total amount of dissolved
salts in a water sample.
• (salinity)
61. Reflection of light in all directions.
• (scattering)
62. The pattern of temperature
and precipitation typical of an area
over a long period of time.
• (climate)
63. A “dome” of water that sweeps
across the coast where the
hurricane lands.
• (storm surge)
64. The flow of cooler air from
over an ocean or lake to land.
• (sea breeze)
65. A large stream of moving water
that flows through the oceans.
• (current)
66. The flow of air from land to a
body of water.
• (land breeze)
67. The A horizon is a soil layer
containing only partly weathered
• False (C horizon)
68. The type of weathering that
occurs due to release of pressure is
mechanical weathering.
• True
69. Prairie grasses have root
systems that spread out and can
absorb water quickly in sandy soils.
• False (desert plants)
70. Tropical soils are often low in
humus and minerals.
• True
71. The ice sheet on Antarctica has
uniform depth.
• False (varying)
72. Clear-cutting is the logging
method of cutting down only some
trees in a forest.
• False (selective cutting)
73. A beach that projects like a
finger out into the water is called a
• False (spit)
74. Wind direction influences the
shape and size of a sand dune.
• True
75. A karst develops when the roof
of a cave collapses.
• False (sinkholes)
76. Infiltration is the process by
which solid ice can change directly
into water vapor.
• False (sublimation)
77. Sources of salt water on Earth
include ice, rivers, lakes, and
• False (fresh water)
78. As you go deeper in the ocean,
water pressure decreases.
• False (increases)
79. The most abundant salt in
ocean water is sodium chloride.
• True
80. Winds are the main cause of
deep currents in the ocean.
• False (surface)
81. People live in the
thermosphere, or inner layer of the
• False (troposphere)
82. On the Celsius scale, the
freezing point of pure water is 0°.
• True
83. Dry air is 78% nitrogen and
21% carbon dioxide.
• False (oxygen)
84. When heated, Earth’s surface
radiates some of the energy back
into the atmosphere as infrared
• True
85. When you touch a hot spoon,
heat is transferred by conduction
from the spoon to your hand.
• True
86. At a warm front, warm air
meets and moves over cold air.
• True
87. The low air pressure of
anticyclones is often associated
with storms and precipitation.
• False (cyclones)
88. Rain or snow usually is
associated with falling air pressure.
• True
89. The boundary where unlike air
masses meet but do not easily mix
is called a(n) jet stream.
• False (front)
90. Tornadoes form in the same
kind of cloud as thunderstorms.
• True
91. Two factors that determine the
rate of weathering are the type of
rock and the climate.
• True
92-94. Identify coastal landforms.
• Beach, sea arch, wave-cut cliff, sea
95-97 Know the layers of the
atmosphere and what is found in
• Troposphere (you & weather)
• Stratosphere (jet planes & weather
• Mesosphere (meteorites)
• Thermosphere (ionosphere-space shuttle
& northern lights) (exosphere-satellite)
98-100 Know the air masses.
Maritime polar (water-cold)
Maritime tropical (water-warm)
Continental polar (land-cold)
Continental tropical (land-warm)