Honors 3rd 9 wks exam study guide
Honors 3rd 9 wks exam study guide
3rd Nine Weeks Exam
Honors Study Guide
1. What kind of weathering
causes the mineral composition of
rocks to change?
• (chemical weathering)
2. Geologists infer from the
rounded, eroded shapes of the
Appalachian Mountains that
• (the mountains have been eroding
for millions of years)
3. A permeable rock weathers
easily because it
• (contains many small, connected air
4. Soil that is rich in humus has
5. The type of soil called loam is
made up of
• (nearly equal amounts of silt, sand,
6. Living organisms in soil help to
• (mix the soil and make humus.)
7. What can cause the loss of soil
that is not protected by plant
• (erosion by water or wind)
8. The practice of plowing fields
along the curves of a slope is called
• (contour plowing)
9. What soil particles are the
10. What are nematodes?
• (tiny worms that live in soil)
11. The process by which natural
forces move weathered rock and
soil from one place to another is
12. Landslides, mudflows, slump,
and creep are all examples of
• (mass movement)
13. Mass movement is caused by
14. A stream or river that runs into
another stream or river is called a
15. Water erosion begins when runoff
from rainfall flows in a thin layer over
the land in a kind of erosion called
• (sheet erosion)
16. Deltas are built up by
17. What is one main difference
between continental glaciers and
• (Continental glaciers are much larger and
18. After the last ice age, stranded
ice blocks left behind by the
continental glacier melted and
19. The energy that produces
ocean waves comes from
• (wind blowing across the water’s surface.)
20. Particles of clay and silt eroded
and deposited by the wind are
21. A large stream of moving water
that flows through the oceans is called
22. Plants use water to
• (make their own food.)
23. Approximately what
percentage of Earth’s water is fresh
24. Water that fills the cracks and
spaces in underground soil and
rock layers is called
25. Water that falls to Earth as
rain, snow, sleet, or hail is called
26. Salinity is a measure of which
of the following in water?
• (dissolved salts)
27. As you descend through the
• (temperature decreases)
28. What percent of our
atmosphere is made up of oxygen?
29. Which of the following
features form where old ocean
floor sinks back toward the
30. What causes cold, deep
currents to form in the oceans near
• (sinking of dense, cold water with high
31. What percent of our
atmosphere is made up of gases
other than oxygen and nitrogen?
32. Which of the following
describes an example of the
atmosphere acting as a system?
• (global wind patterns)
33. The less mass in a given
volume of air, the
• (less dense the air.)
34. Instruments used to measure
air pressure are called
35. As you rise upwards in the
atmosphere, air pressure
36. The layer of our atmosphere in
which weather occurs is the
37. The greenhouse effect is
• (the process by which gases hold
heat in the atmosphere.)
38. Cool air tends to
• (be more dense and flow under
39. Local winds differ from global
winds because they
• (are caused by unequal heating
within a small area.)
40. Earth’s rotation makes global
winds curve. This is called the
• (Coriolis effect)
41. What is the name of the
process by which water vapor
enters the atmosphere during the
42. Relative humidity can be
measured with a(an)
43. Two conditions are required
for cloud formation: cooling of the
• (the presence of particles in the air.)
44. Very high feathery clouds are
• (cirrus clouds)
45. What you find in the
• (weather balloon)
46. Cold, dry air affecting the
northern United States in winter often
• (continental polar air masses.)
47. Weather associated with an
anticyclone is generally
• (dry and clear.)
48. What is measured using the
Enhanced Fujita scale?
• (tornado damage)
49. The collecting of weather data
in the last 40 years has been
improved mostly by
• (balloons and satellites)
50. The most dangerous aspect of a
snowstorm is often the
• (high winds.)
51. Approximately what
percentage of Earth’s water is salt
52. Water that fills the cracks and
spaces in underground soil and
53. The process by which water is
lost through a plant’s leaves.
54. The condition of Earth’s
atmosphere at a particular time and
55. The outer most layer of Earth’s
56. A measure of the amount of
water vapor in the air.
57. Bands of high-speed winds
about 10 km above Earth’s surface.
• (jet streams)
58. A huge body of air in the lower
atmosphere that has similar
temperature, humidity, and air
pressure at any given height.
• (air mass)
59. Move away temporarily.
60. The total amount of dissolved
salts in a water sample.
61. Reflection of light in all directions.
62. The pattern of temperature
and precipitation typical of an area
over a long period of time.
63. A “dome” of water that sweeps
across the coast where the
• (storm surge)
64. The flow of cooler air from
over an ocean or lake to land.
• (sea breeze)
65. A large stream of moving water
that flows through the oceans.
66. The flow of air from land to a
body of water.
• (land breeze)
67. The A horizon is a soil layer
containing only partly weathered
• False (C horizon)
68. The type of weathering that
occurs due to release of pressure is
69. Prairie grasses have root
systems that spread out and can
absorb water quickly in sandy soils.
• False (desert plants)
70. Tropical soils are often low in
humus and minerals.
71. The ice sheet on Antarctica has
• False (varying)
72. Clear-cutting is the logging
method of cutting down only some
trees in a forest.
• False (selective cutting)
73. A beach that projects like a
finger out into the water is called a
• False (spit)
74. Wind direction influences the
shape and size of a sand dune.
75. A karst develops when the roof
of a cave collapses.
• False (sinkholes)
76. Infiltration is the process by
which solid ice can change directly
into water vapor.
• False (sublimation)
77. Sources of salt water on Earth
include ice, rivers, lakes, and
• False (fresh water)
78. As you go deeper in the ocean,
water pressure decreases.
• False (increases)
79. The most abundant salt in
ocean water is sodium chloride.
80. Winds are the main cause of
deep currents in the ocean.
• False (surface)
81. People live in the
thermosphere, or inner layer of the
• False (troposphere)
82. On the Celsius scale, the
freezing point of pure water is 0°.
83. Dry air is 78% nitrogen and
21% carbon dioxide.
• False (oxygen)
84. When heated, Earth’s surface
radiates some of the energy back
into the atmosphere as infrared
85. When you touch a hot spoon,
heat is transferred by conduction
from the spoon to your hand.
86. At a warm front, warm air
meets and moves over cold air.
87. The low air pressure of
anticyclones is often associated
with storms and precipitation.
• False (cyclones)
88. Rain or snow usually is
associated with falling air pressure.
89. The boundary where unlike air
masses meet but do not easily mix
is called a(n) jet stream.
• False (front)
90. Tornadoes form in the same
kind of cloud as thunderstorms.
91. Two factors that determine the
rate of weathering are the type of
rock and the climate.
92-94. Identify coastal landforms.
• Beach, sea arch, wave-cut cliff, sea
95-97 Know the layers of the
atmosphere and what is found in
• Troposphere (you & weather)
• Stratosphere (jet planes & weather
• Mesosphere (meteorites)
• Thermosphere (ionosphere-space shuttle
& northern lights) (exosphere-satellite)
98-100 Know the air masses.
Maritime polar (water-cold)
Maritime tropical (water-warm)
Continental polar (land-cold)
Continental tropical (land-warm)