download report

Transcript Vocabulary

Unit 1
• Mean: the average of a set of numbers. To
find, add all together and divide by the
amount of #’s.
• Peer review: Review process when an expert
reviews the research paper written about an
• Theory: a hypothesis which is supported by
many experiments, repeated many times.
• Basic Science: Science or research which
investigates curiosity or interest, not to
develop a product.
• Applied Science: Science or research designed
to solve modern problems to improve human
• SI Units: International system of units (meter,
liter, second, gram)
• Good lab practice: safe, common-sense habits
to use while conducting experiments.
• Control group: normal standard in an
experiment which a scientist can use as a
• Independent variable: single variable or factor
which is changed or manipulated in an
• Dependent variable: variable which is affected
by the independent variable, is measured by
the scientist.
Unit 3
• pH scale: 0-14 scale used to compare
concentrations of hydronium to hydroxide
Isotope: atoms of the same element which
have different numbers of neutrons
Ion: a charged atom
Covalent bond: bond between two non-metals,
where electrons are shared. Strongest bond
Ionic bond: Bond which forms between a metal
and a non-metal during which electrons are
transferred and ions are made.
Organic: Carbon containing
Proton: subatomic particle with a positive
charge found in the atom’s nucleus
Electron: subatomic particle with a
negative charge found in the space
surrounding the nucleus of an atom
Neutron: subatomic particle with no charge
which is found in the atom’s nucleus.
Enzymes: special proteins which lower the
activation energy and catalyze reactions.
Unit 3
• Eukaryote: complex cells which have a nucleus
and membrane bound organelles
• Prokaryotes: simple cells which do NOT have a
nucleus or membrane bound organelles.
• ATP: adenosine tri-phosphate, energy
currency of cells
• Nucleus: control center of cell, contains DNA
• Mitochondria: converts energy from food into
ATP, powerhouse of cell
• Ribosome: protein synthesis
• Golgi Apparatus: sort and package organic
• Lysosome: site of digestion of worn out parts
and digestive enzyme storage
• Cilia: short hair-like projections of eukaryotic
cells, used for movement
• Flagella: long tail-like projections of
prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, allow
Unit 4
• Diffusion: movement of molecules from a high
concentration to a low concentration
• Osmosis: diffusion of water
• Facilitated diffusion: diffusion through a
protein channel
• Active transport: movement of molecules
from low to high concentration, uses energy
(ex: endocytosis, exocytosis, protein pump)
• Cellular respiration: breakdown of glucose into
• Mitosis: cell division of body cells (non-sex cell
• Aerobic: with oxygen
• Anaerobic: without oxygen
• Glycolysis: step of cellular respiration, occurs
in cytoplasm, breaks glucose into 2 pyruvates
• Electron Transport Chain: step of aerobic
respiration, occurs in inner mitochondrial
membrane, creates ATP.
Unit 5
• Central Dogma of Biology: DNA is replicated
into DNA. DNA is transcribed into RNA, RNA is
translated into proteins.
• Nucleotide: a sugar, nitrogenous base, and a
phosphate group; makes up nucleic acids
• Replication: occurs in the nucleus before cell
division, DNA is copied into DNA
• Transcription: Occurs in nucleus, DNA is used
as a template to make RNA
• Translation: occurs at the ribosome, RNA is
used as the instructions to make proteins
• RNA: single stranded nucleic acid, bases:
• DNA: double stranded nucleic acid, bases
• Chargaff’s Rule: A binds to T, G binds to C,
same % of A as T and G as C
• Codon: sequence of three nucleotides which
corresponds to an amino acid
• Mutation: damage to DNA, possibly causing a
different amino acid sequence to be made
during protein synthesis
Unit 6
• Genotype: genetic information carried in the
DNA of the organism
• Phenotype: the physical characteristics of an
• Meiosis: Cell division resulting in gametes,
results in 4 haploid cells
• Diploid cell: cell having 2 complete sets of
chromosomes (46 in humans)
• Ex: Somatic Cells
• Haploid cell: Cell having 1 complete set of
chromosomes (23 in humans).
• Ex: Gametic cells
• Homologous chromosomes: set of
chromosomes (one from each parent) which
complete crossing over
• Crossing over: Process during which
homologous chromosomes exchange pieces of
DNA, results in genetic variation (prophase I)
• Homozygous: having two identical genes for a
– Ex: HH or hh
• Heterozygous: having two different genes for a
– Ex: Aa or Hh
• Carrier: organism having heterozygous alleles
for a recessive trait, is unaffected, but can
pass on the recessive allelle
Unit 7
• Evolution: genetic change over time
• Natural selection: survival and reproduction of
the fittest organisms to an environment
• Autotrophs: organisms which make their own
• Heterotrophs: organisms that eat other
organisms for food (energy)
• Organic evolution: development of new
species/evolution of life
• Chemical evolution: inorganic molecules form
organic molecules
• Spontaneous generation: life is spontaneously
created from non-living things
• “most fit trait:” trait which allows an organism
to reproduce more than an organism without
the trait
• Microevolution: changes in allele frequencies
in a population, occurs over a smaller amount
of time.
• Macroevolution: development of new species
from an ancestral form, occurs over long
periods of time (thousands/millions of years)
Unit 8
• Analogous structure: structures with a
different structure/origin, same function
• Homologous structure: structures with the
same origin/structure, with different functions
• Species: organisms which can have fertile
• Gradualism: rate of speciation which is
gradual and constant
• Punctuated equilibrium: rate of speciation
during which there are long periods of no
change, then sudden bursts of change
• Neuron: nerve cell
• Tissue: group of cells which work together for
a common function
• Convergent evolution: species with different
ancestors evolve to become more similar due
to environment
• Divergent evolution: populations with the
same ancestor evolve to become different,
into new species
• Coevolution: population evolves due to the
influence of another population, and vice
Unit 9
• Transpiration: process by which water
evaporates from leaves of plants, pulling
water upwards
• Xylem: vascular tissue of plants which
transports water and minerals
• Phloem: vascular tissue of plants which
transports food (glucose)
• Cell wall: cell structure found outside the
plasma membrane of plant cells which
supports cells
• Chloroplast: cell organelle found in plants, site
of photosynthesis
• Photosynthesis: process by which organisms
create glucose from carbon dioxide, light, and
• Chlorophyll: primary plant pigment, absorbs
• Stamen: male part of flower (anther+filament)
where pollen is produced
• Carpel/Pistil: female part of flower (ovary,
style, stigma)
• Angiosperm: vascular, seeding, flowering plant
• Eubacteria: prokaryote with a cell wall made
of peptidoglycan
Unit 10
• Archaebacteria: prokaryote with cell wall not
made of peptidoglycan, some live in extreme
• Virus: non-living, protein capsule containing
nucleic acid, must have host to reproduce
• Animal: eukaryotic, no cell wall, mostly multicellular, all heterotrophic
• Protist: eukaryotic, no cell wall, mostly single
celled, can be autotrophic or heterotrophic
• Fungi: eukaryotic, cell wall made of chitin, all
• Plants: eukaryotic, cell wall made of cellulose,
all autotrophic
• Binomial nomenclature: classification system
developed by Linnaeus which gives every type
of organism a 2 part name: Genus species
• Cyanobacteria: photosynthetic bacteria,
provided oxygen for aerobic life to evolve
• Hierarchy of taxonomy: domain, kingdom,
phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
Unit 11
Ecosystem: all biotic and abiotic factors of an
area interacting with each other
Community: multiple populations (species)
Population: All individuals of one species in a
particular area
Rule of 10%: 10% of the energy is passed on
from one trophic level to the next, 90% is lost
as heat and inefficiency
Mutualism: symbiotic relationship when both
organisms benefit/are helped
Parasitism: symbiotic relationship when one
organism benefits and one is harmed
Commensalism: symbiotic relationship during
which one organism benefits, the other is
Carrying capacity: the maximum amount of
organisms an environment can sustain over
Predation: the killing and consumption of one
organism by another
Ecological Succession: Process of change of an
ecosystem over time (primary or secondary)