Transcript ECOLOGY

Levels of Organization
• Biotic Factor - living environment, including all
• Abiotic Factor - nonliving/physical
• Limiting Factor- something an organism needs
to survive that is in short supply
– i.e. Food, Water, Space
What is Biotic? Abiotic?
Levels of Organization
Levels of Ecological Organization
• Individuals
• Populations: Members of the same
species that live together in the same area at
the same time.
• Communities: All the populations of
different species that live and interact
together within an area at the same time.
What is in our biological
Levels of Ecological Organization
Continued . . .
• Ecosystems: Community together with
it’s physical environment. (Biotic and
Abiotic components)
What is in our ecosystem?
Levels of Ecological Organization
Continued . . .
• Biome: A large area that has a
particular climate, and particular
species of plants and animals that live
there (tundra)
Levels of Ecological Organization
Continued . . .
• Biosphere:All the earth’s organisms and their
interactions with each other, the land, the water,
and the atmosphere.
• In your groups:
– Use the Continent that was assigned to you.
– Come up with a pyramid showing the levels of
organization that would be seen on your
• You may use your cellphones/laptops/etc to research
– Make a mneumonic BBECPO
• DUE 9/18-19
Flow of Energy and Matter
• *The basis of every organism’s interaction
with the environment is its need for ENERGY
to power life’s processes
• Organisms are classified by how they get
– Autotroph
– Heterotroph
Autotrophs (producers)
1. chemoautotrophs- use chemical energy (inorganic
molecules) to produce sugars
Ex: sulfur bacteria
2. photoautotrophs- use light energy to convert carbon
dioxide and water into oxygen and sugars (glucose)
Ex: cyanobacteria, algae, plants
Photoautotrophs (Bacteria, Algae, and Plants)
Cyanobacteria (Bacteria)
Algae (Protist)
Algae (Protist)
• Organisms that rely on other organisms for
their energy (have to eat food or absorb it)
1. Herbivores
2. Carnivores
3. Omnivores
4. Detritivores
5. Decomposers
Energy Flow in an Ecosystem
Exchange of materials (Energy &
Food Chains
• Feeding of one organism upon another in a
sequence of food transfers
• Represents the transfer of energy in an
• (Sun) Rose plant  Aphids  Beetle  Chameleon  Hawk
Food Webs
• Many different food chains in an ecosystem
are cross-linked to form a web
Trophic levels
• Feeding positions in a food chain/web
– Producers (autotrophs)
– Consumers (heterotrophs)
• Primary Consumer
– Herbivore
• Secondary Consumer
– Carnivore/Omnivore
• Tertiary Consumer
– Carnivore/Omnivore
Ecological Pyramids
• Shows trophic levels and flow of energy or
matter from one level to the next
• 3 types
– Numbers Pyramid
– Biomass Pyramid
– Energy Pyramid
Numbers Pyramid
Shows the number of organisms in each trophic level
Can be misleading—doesn’t take into account the size of organisms
Not always same shape
For example: Forest ecosystem (fewer numbers of trees than
numbers of insects)
Biomass Pyramid
• Shows total mass of organisms in each trophic
Energy Pyramid
• Shows total amount of energy present in each trophic level
• Shows loss of energy from one trophic level to the next (90% of energy is
• Loss of energy due to waste, metabolism (such as cell respiration,
growth/development), much is lost as heat
Energy Flow/Food Web Assignment
• PART 1
– From the Energy Flow Handout, create two food webs
Producers at the bottom
Try not to cross lines
Only write the organism name once
Include arrows showing the direction of energy
– Using colored pencils outline 5 separate food chains in
each food web
• PART 2
– Create two energy pyramids (one with 3 trophic levels; one with
4 trophic levels) for each food web
• PART 3
– Complete the Energy in the Ecosystem Worksheet
• DUE 10/7-8