Agroclimatic Zones - Xavier Institute of Management

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Transcript Agroclimatic Zones - Xavier Institute of Management

PRESENTATION ON RPLS
• With the 329 million hectares of the geographical area the
country presents a large number of complex agro-climatic
situations.
• 70 percent of India's population lives in rural areas where
the main occupation is agriculture having a average farm size
is only 1.57 hectares.
• 93 percent of farmers have land holdings smaller than 4 ha
and they cultivate nearly 55 percent of the arable land and
1.6 of the farmers have operational land holdings > 10 ha
• Several attempts have been made to delineate major agroecological regions in respect to soils, climate, physiographic
and natural vegetation for macro-level planning on a more
scientific basis .
• Due to the challenge of feeding our vast population
and the experience of food shortages in the preindependence era, 'self reliance' in food grains has
been the cornerstone of our policies in the last 50
years.
• Agriculture is highly location-specific, grouping the
available land area in the country into different agroclimatic regions based on certain identifiable
characteristics becomes all the more important.
• This may help the country to engage in more rational
planning and optimizing resource use for the present
and in preserving them for the future
Planning of the ACZ of India
A. Agro-ecological regions by the ICAR.
B. Agro-climatic regions by the Planning Commission.
C. Agro-climatic zones under NARP.
D. Agro-ecological regions by the NBSS & LUP
What is ACZ actually ?
• An “Agro-climatic zone” is a land unit in terms of major
climates, suitable for a certain range of crops and cultivars.
The planning aims at scientific management of regional
resources to meet the food, fiber, fodder and fuel wood
without adversely affecting the status of natural resources
and environment. Crop yield is (FAO, 1983).
• The function of many factors like weather, soil type and its
nutrient status, management practices and other inputs available .
• This calls for collection, collation, analysis and interpretation of
long-term weather parameters available for each region to
identify the length of the possible cropping period taking into
consideration the availability of water .
• An appropriate mix of crop production and allied activities
including horticulture, forestry, animal husbandry and agroprocessing etc. improved farming systems technologies will
replace traditional crop production approach to minimize
regional variations in rural incomes.
• Previously on the basis of homogeneity in agrocharacteristics such as water surplus and water deficit,
India was divided into 11 agro-climatic zones.
• Later on it was divided into 15 agro-climatic zones on the
basis of water surplus and deficit and cropping system.
• Agro-ecological regions is a land unit cut out of the agro
climatic region when superimposed on land form and the
kind of soils and soil conditions that acts as modifiers to
the climate and the length of the growing period.
• The classification is on the basis of growth period ,
rainfall/potential evaporation and soil.
There are two components of
ecological zones1] Biotic factors viz,Flora and Fauna .
2] Abiotic factors viz. water , minerals , light
[Note :At present India has been divided into 21 agro-ecological
zones .]
. Agro-climatic regions by the
Planning Commission
• The Planning Commission, as a result of the mid-term
appraisal of the planning targets of the Seventh Plan, has
divided the country into fifteen broad agro-climatic zones
based on physiography, soils, geological formation,
-Climate, cropping patterns, and
development of irrigation and mineral
resources for broad agricultural planning
and developing future strategies
Western Himalayan Region
Demarcated into three states (not exhaustively) J&K, HP, UP,
Uttranchal.
Average max. temp. (ºC)= Summer 22.6
Average min. temp. (ºC)= Winter 2.6
Avg. seasonal rainfall (mm)=1650-2000mm
Climate=Cool and humid
irrigation method=Border strip and wild flooding
Soil type=( Any special soil condition or other a biotic limitation) Brown hill
alluvial (recent), mountain, meadow, skeletal.
Constraints in the region=Soil erosion, slides and slips.
Important crops=Wheat, Maize, Paddy and Potato.
Cropping systems: subsistence or commercial mostly having Rice-wheat,
maize-wheat, vegetables-wheat
Common pests Pests like Stem borers, aphids, are mostly prevalent in the area.
To develop this region
emphasis is on: (FAO Guideline)
• -Intensification of the soil and water conservation planning.
-Land utility planning should be implemented viz. agriculture
for 30% sloppy land, horticulture for 30-50% slope, paddy
for above 50% slope.
-Good storage for transportation, marketing and processing.
-Irrigation management like water harvesting technique.
-Livestock management.
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Some research institutes in the region :
Forest research institute, Deheradun
-Vivekananda Parvitaya Annushandhanshala , Almora , Uttranchal
-Potato breeding and certification station, Shimla
The first agriculture University of India GBPUAT, Pantnagar is situated in this
area. It caters to the need of the farmers.
Eastern Himalayan Region
This region includes the states like Assam Sikkim, W.Bengal
& all North-Eastern states.
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Average max. temp. (ºC)= Summer 22.2
Average min. temp. (ºC)= Winter 8.8
Avg. seasonal rainfall (mm)=1840-3528mm
Climate=Humid and sub- humid
Average method=Canals are the source and farmers irrigate by either border
strip or wild flooding.
Soil type= Any special soil condition or other abiotic limitation Alluvial, red
loamy, red sandy, brown hill soil, soil erosion, flash floods, steep slopes,
denudation and degradation
Important crops=Maize, Paddy, Jute, Rapeseed.
Cropping systems: subsistence or commercial(Rice-vegetables, rice-wheat,
rice-rice, jute-wheat.
Constraints=Sloppy terrain and rocky topography and traditional ways of
cultivation like Jhoom cultivation and shifting cultivation leads to the low
productivity of these regions .
Common Pests like Stem borers, aphids and thrips are serious.
FAO guidelines for
improvement of this region
• Soil and water conservation for each
watershed.
• Educate the people about the harmful effect of
land erosion at Panchayat level.
• Facilities of good supply of inputs, marketing
transportation, processing and storage.
• Adoption of Integrated Farming system because
of different dietary pattern of local people
• Good communication and transport facility.
Lower Gangetic Plains
Region
It includes the areas of W.Bengal and
adjoining regions
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Avg. max.temp. (ºC)= Summer 35.5
Avg. min. temp. (ºC)= Winter 11.0
Avg. seasonal rainfall (mm)=1302-1607mm
Climate=Moist humid and dry humid
irrigation method=Canals and ground water are the water
sources and irrigate by either border strip and wild flooding
Soil type= Any special soil condition and yellow Deltaic. orRed .
other abiotic limitation- Soil erosion and degradation, soil
salinity and alkalinity
Important crops-Rice, Wheat, Rapeseed, Maize and Potato
Cropping systems: subsistence or commercial-Rice-mustard,
Pulses-wheat,Rice-vegetables, rice-wheat, rice potato, ricewheat-summer rice
Common pests and treatmentPests like Stem borers, aphids ,
Gundhi bug and case worm are prevalent.
• Some of the pioneer institute in the
regions are :
• -Pioneer institute in fiber crop is -Jute
technical research institute, kolkata.
• -Central inland fisheries research institute,
Barrackpore, W. bengal
• This region is highly productive in the
paddy cultivation as it comes under the
lowest Gangentic belt
Middle Gangetic Plains Region
It includes the regions like UP, Bihar.
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Avg. max. temp. (ºC)= Summer 30.5
Avg. min. temp. (ºC)= Winter 16.8
Avg. seasonal rainfall (mm)=1211-1470mm
Climate=Moist sub- humid to dry sub- humid
irrigation method-Canals and ground water are the
water sources and irrigate by either border strip or
wild flooding.
Soil type. Any special soil like Alluvial
condition or other Abiotic limitation= Floods.
Important crops-Sugarcane, Paddy, Maize, Wheat
Cropping systems: subsistence or commercial-Ricewheat, rice-fallow, maize-wheat, rice-lentil, ricevegetables, rice-wheat-sugar cane-ratoon-wheat/rice
Common Pests= shoot borer, root borer, aphids,
Temites, Rice weevil are prevalent.
Some major institutes are :
• Indian grass land and forst research
institute, Jhansi, UP.
• -Indian institute of sugarcane
research, Lucknow, UP.
• -Indian vegetables research
institute, Varanasi , UP
Upper Gangetic Plains Region
It includes the regions of Uttar Pradesh and adjoining
regions.
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Avg. max. temp. (ºC)= Summer 35.8
Avg. min. temp. (ºC)= Winter12.8
Avg. seasonal rainfall (mm)=721-979mm
Climate=Dry sub- humid to sub dry climate
irrigation method=Canals and ground water are the water
sources and irrigated by either border strip or wild
flooding.
Soil type.=Alluvial
Important crops=Rice, Wheat , Maize and Sugarcane
Cropping systems: subsistence or commercial
Rice-wheat, sugar cane-wheat, maize-wheat, pearl milletwheat
Common pests-Pests like Stem borers, aphids, Termites;
Rice weevil, Gundhi bug and various other diseases are
prevalent.
Trans-Gangetic Plains Region:
It includes the regions of Panjab, Haryana, Delhi &
Rajasthan.
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Avg. max. temp. (ºC) =Summer33.5
Avg min. temp. (ºC)= Winter14.0
Avg. seasonal rainfall (mm)=1100-1300mm
Irrigation method=Canals and ground water are the water sources
and irrigate by either border strip or wild
• Any special soil condition or other abiotic limitation=Alluvial
(recent), calcarious, desert, water logging, salinity and floods.
• Cropping systems: subsistence or commercial-Rice-wheat, maizewheat, maize-potato-wheat, cotton-wheat, sugar cane-wheat.
• Common pests like Stem borers, root borer, aphids, golden
nematodes and beetle are prevalent.
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IARI [Indian ag. Research institute]
Central Institute of post harvest engineering and technology,
ludhiana,
Soil salinity and research institute, karnal
Eastern Plateau and Hills Region
It includes the regions like UP, Orissa
& W.Bengal
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Avg. max.temp. (ºC) =Summer 32
Avg. min temp. (ºC)= Winter 19.7
Avg. seasonal rainfall (mm)=1000-1050mm
irrigation method-Tube wells and tanks are the water
sources and irrigate by either border strip and wild
flooding.
• Any special soil condition or other a biotic limitationRed Shallow soils with undulating topography.
• Cropping systems: subsistence or commercial-Ricefallow, rice-linseed/lentil, rice-horsegram /greengram.
Rice-wheat, rice-mustard.
---------------------------------------------------------• Indian Lac Research Institute, Ranchi, Jharkhand
Central Plateau and Hills Region
MP, Rajasthan, UP comes under this zone
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Avg. max. temp. (ºC) =Summer 34.8
Avg. min. temp. (ºC)= Winter16.3
Avg. seasonal rainfall (mm)
irrigation method-Tube wells and tanks are the water
sources and irrigate by either border strip or wild
flooding.
Name of important crops=Jowar , bajra , paddy and
wheat
Soil type. Mixed red and black, red and yellow, medium
black, alluvial.
Any special soil condition or other abiotic limitationRavinous lands and soil erosion.
Cropping systems: subsistence or commercial, Fallowwheat, fallow-mustard, fallow-gram -Soybean-wheat, ricewheat.
Common pests and treatmentPests like cut worm , borer
(root and shoot)and sucking pests are prevalent
Western Plateau and Hills
Region
Maharastra, MP & Rajasthan
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Avg. max. temp. (ºC)= Summer 36.8
Avg. min. temp. (ºC) Winter16.6
Average seasonal rainfall (mm)=600-1000
irrigation method-Tube wells and tanks are the water
sources and irrigate by either border strip or wild flooding.
Soil type. =medium to deep black soils.
Cropping systems: subsistence or commercial-Cottonpigeonpea, pearlmillet-sorghum, sorghum-wheat,
pearmillet-wheat. Soybean-wheat/gram, rice-wheat.
Common pests =Bollworm, aphids and thrips and different
borers are also prevalent
Development strategy-Management of minor irrigation.
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Cotton Technological Research Institute, Mumbai
(Maharashtra)
National research centre for grapes ,Pune,Maharashtra.
Southern Plateau and Hills
Region
AP, Karnatak, Tamil Nadu
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Avg. max. temp. (ºC) =Summer 34.7
Avg. min. temp. (ºC)= Winter21.3
Avg. seasonal rainfall (mm)=650-1000
irrigation method-Tube wells and tanks are the water sources and
irrigate by either border strip or wild flooding.
Soil special -Medium to deep black soils, red sandy, and red loamy.
Cropping systems: subsistence or commercial Rice-pulses and ricefallow. Rice-rice, Sugar cane and rice-ground nut.
----------------------------------------------------------------Central tobacco research institute , Rajhamundhary,AP
-Directorate of rice research ,Hyd,AP
East Coast Plains and Hills
Region
This includes the regions like Orissa, AP,
TN,& Pondicherii
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Avg. max. temp. (ºC)= Summer 36.8
Avg. min temp. (ºC) Winter17.2
Avg. seasonal rainfall (mm)=780-1287mm
Climate=Semi-arid and dry sub-humid climate
irrigation method=Tube wells and tanks are the water sources.
Soil type= Red soil and mixed black, yellow, red sandy, laterite, and
alluvial soils
Important crops=Jower, Bajra, Groundnut, Rice and Ragi.
Rich forest wealth is an asset, and shifting cultivation, soil salinity
and acidity are the major constraints.
• Central rice research institute ,Cuttuck , Orissa
West Coast Plains and
Ghat Region
TN, Kerala, Goa, Karnataka, Maharastra
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The physiographic features are Western Ghats, plateau,
river valleys, undulating rocky plains, and coastal plains.
The western ghats is humid and the rest of the area is
semi-arid.
The rainfall = 60 to 200 cm.
Major soil groups = black, red, lateritic, and alluvial. Rich
forest wealth and Western Ghats suitable for plantation
crops are the main assets.
Dry farming is prevalent and -a considerable area is
irrigated through wells, tanks and rivers.
-Salinity, alkalinity, erosion, and acidity are the major
problems.
Average maximum temperature (ºC) Summer40.0
Average minimum temperature (ºC) Winter11.3
Average seasonal rainfall (mm)600-2000Soil type.
• Any special soil condition or other abiotic limitationDeep black, coastal alluvial, and medium deep black
• Cropping systems: subsistence or commercial Rice.
Wheat is taken after ground nut/pearl millet/rice
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• sugarcane breeding research institute, Coimbatore, TN;
central coffee research institute ,Chikmanglur,
Kar.indian institute of horticulture research, Banglore
Gujarat Plains and Hills
Region
• This region is exclusive to Gujarat. The following are the
characteristics:
• Average maximum temperature (ºC) =Summer40.0
• Average minimum temperature (ºC) =Winter11.3
• Average seasonal rainfall (mm)=1000-1100mm
• Soil type=Deep black to medium deep black
• Cropping systems: subsistence or commercial Groundnut and
different types of millets
• National research centre for
groundnut,Junagarh
Western Dry Region
Rajasthan comes under this zone
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Average maximum temperature (ºC) Summer42
Average minimum temperature (ºC) Winter2
Average seasonal rainfall (mm)600mm
Soil type, Any special soil condition or other abiotic limitation-Desert, Gray
brown soils
• Cropping systems: subsistence or commercialPearl millet-fallow, cluster beanfallow, Kharif pulses-fallow And rotation with Cotton-wheat, Pearlmillet-wheat.
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-Central arid zone research institute, Jodhpur
-Central institute for arid horticulture,Bikaner
To develop this region emphasis is on:
• Rain water harvesting and its management
• Dryland farming and management canal and ground water
• Development of agro-forestry and arid- horticulture
The Islands Region
It comprises the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the East and
Lakshadweep in the West
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The climate is typified by tropical conditions and the rainfall ranges from 1600 to
3000 mm.
• The soils of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are medium to very deep, red loamy
and acidic, and that of the Lakshadweep Islands are highly calcareous and sandy.
• Most of the area is under forest and the land use is dominated by plantation crops.
• Forest degradation leading to severe erosion and inundation of coastal areas
leading to saline marshes are the major constraints.
• It has greater potential for growing sustainable oil palm plantations.
• Average maximum temperature (ºC) Summer22.8
• Average minimum temperature (ºC) Winter14.6
• Average seasonal rainfall (mm)1600-3000mm
• Climate=humid;Important crops=Rice and Cocunut.
• Central agriculture research institute , Portblair is the major
research institute of the zone.
Conclusion
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Historically, regions were often associated with the crops in which they
specialize for various agronomic, climatic, hydro-geological, . But, in the
aftermath of technological changes encompassing bio-chemical and
irrigation technologies, the agronomic niches are undergoing significant
changes.
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With the advent new farm technologies, agriculture become drought
proof and growth become more regionally balanced.
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There has been a reduction in the instability of agricultural output
it can be said that however hard we try to implement the changes in the
cropping pattern and other structural changes , the factor of agro-climatic
conditions ,perse, cannot be ignored.
• Presented by :
Deepak Jangid[16]
Jayalakshmi [21]
PGPRM-I