#### Transcript 1. Distance Vector Routing

```RIP
APPROACHES TO SHORTEST PATH
ROUTING
There are two basic routing algorithms found on the
Internet.
1. Distance Vector Routing





Each node knows the distance (=cost) to its directly connected
neighbors
A node sends periodically a list of routing updates to its
neighbors.
If all nodes update their distances, the routing tables
eventually converge
New nodes advertise themselves to their neighbors



Each node knows the distance to its neighbors
in the network
Each node calculates the routing tables independently
2
ROUTING ALGORITHMS IN THE INTERNET
Distance Vector




Routing Information
Protocol (RIP)
Gateway-to-Gateway Protocol
(GGP)


Intermediate System Intermediate System (IS-IS)
Open Shortest Path First
(OSPF)
Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP)
Interior Gateway Routing
Protocol (IGRP)
3
CHARACTERISTICS OF DISTANCE VECTOR
ROUTING




sent at the end of a certain time period. A typical
value is 90 seconds.
router immediately sends out an update without
waiting for the end of the update period.
Full Routing Table Update: Most distance vector
routing protocol send their neighbors the entire
routing table (not only entries which change).
Route invalidation timers: Routing table entries
are invalid if they are not refreshed. A typical value is
to invalidate an entry if no update is received after 36 update periods.
4
RIP - ROUTING INFORMATION PROTOCOL
 Straightforward implementation of Distance
Vector Routing
 Each router advertises its distance vector every
30 seconds (or whenever its routing table
changes) to all of its neighbors
 RIP always uses 1 as link metric
 Maximum hop count is 15, with “16” equal to “”
 Routes are timeout (set to 16) after 3 minutes if
they are not updated

5
RIP - HISTORY

Late 1960s :
the
Mid-1970s:
protocol is
IPX RIP
1982
1988

1993



Distance Vector protocols were used in
ARPANET
XNS (Xerox Network system) routing
the precursor of RIP in IP (and Novell’s
and Apple’s routing protocol)
Release of routed for BSD Unix
RIPv1 (RFC 1058)
- classful routing
RIPv2 (RFC 1388)
entry

1998
- allows classless routing
Current version of RIPv2 (RFC 2453)
6
RIP - HISTORY

Late 1960s :
the
Mid-1970s:
protocol is
IPX RIP
1982
1988

1993



Distance Vector protocols were used in
ARPANET
XNS (Xerox Network system) routing
the precursor of RIP in IP (and Novell’s
and Apple’s routing protocol)
Release of routed for BSD Unix
RIPv1 (RFC 1058)
- classful routing
RIPv2 (RFC 1388)
entry

1998
- allows classless routing
Current version of RIPv2 (RFC 2453)
7
RIPV1 PACKET FORMAT
RIP Message
1: RIPv1
2: for IP
0…0: request full routing table
Command Version
Set to 00...0
Set to 00.00
Unused (Set to 00...0)
Cost (measured in hops)
One RIP message can
have up to 25 route entries
Unused (Set to 00...0)
one route entry
(20 bytes)
1: request
2: response
metric (1-16)
Up to 24 more routes (each 20 bytes)
32 bits
8
RIPV2

RIPv2 is an extends RIPv1:
Subnet masks are carried in the route information
 Authentication of routing messages
 Route information carries next-hop address
 Exploites IP multicasting


Extensions of RIPv2 are carried in unused fields
of RIPv1 messages
9
RIPV2 PACKET FORMAT
RIP Message
2: RIPv1
2: for IP
0…0: request full routing table
Command Version
Set to 00...0
Set to 00.00
Unused (Set to 00...0)
Cost (measured in hops)
One RIP message can
have up to 25 route entries
Unused (Set to 00...0)
metric (1-16)
Up to 24 more routes (each 20 bytes)
32 bits
one route entry
(20 bytes)
1: request
2: response
10
RIPV2 PACKET FORMAT
Used to carry information
from other routing
protocols (e.g.,
autonomous system
number)
RIPv2 Message
Command Version
Set to 00.00
route tag
Identifies a better next-hop
router, if one exists
(otherwise 0….0)
metric (1-16)
Up to 24 more routes (each 20 bytes)
32 bits
2: RIPv2
one route entry
(20 bytes)
11
RIP MESSAGES


This is the operation of RIP in routed.
Dedicated port for RIP is UDP port 520.
Two types of messages:

Request messages


used to ask neighboring nodes for an update
Response messages

contains an update
12
ROUTING WITH RIP


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Initialization: Send a request packet (command = 1, address
family=0..0) on all interfaces:
 RIPv1 uses broadcast if possible,
 RIPv2 uses multicast address 224.0.0.9, if possible
requesting routing tables from neighboring routers
entire routing table
Response received: Update the routing table
Typically, there is a routing daemon (routed) that is an
tables.
13
ROUTING WITH RIP CONT.
Regular routing updates: Every 30 seconds,
send all or part of the routing tables to every
neighbor in an response message
 Triggered Updates: Whenever the metric for a
route change, send entire routing table.
 If a router does not hear from its neighbor once
every 180 seconds, the neighbor is deemed
unreachable.

SECURITY
Issue: Sending bogus routing updates to a router
 RIPv1: No protection
 RIPv2: Simple authentication scheme

RIP SECURITY
RIPv2 Message
Command Version
Set to 00.00
0xffff
Authentication Type
Up to 24 more routes (each 20 bytes)
32 bits
2: plaintext
Authetication
16
RIP PROBLEMS

RIP takes a long time to stabilize


Even for a small network, it takes several minutes
until the routing tables have settled after a change
RIP has all the problems of distance vector
algorithms, e.g., count-to-Infinity


RIP uses split horizon to avoid count-to-infinity
The maximum path in RIP is 15 hops
17
AN EXAMPLE OF RIP
reaching networks.
 In this example, C’s update to
A would indicate that C can
reach Networks 2 and 3 with
cost 0, Networks 5 and 6 with
cost 1 and Network 4 with
cost 2.

1
4
A
B
2
5
C
3
D
6
```