Analog audiotape editing

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Transcript Analog audiotape editing

RTV 440
Sound and Miking
Sound in an environment
• Sound wave
– Compression / rarefaction
• Frequency / Measured in hertz
• Amplitude / Measured in decibels (db-spl)
– AM/FM, kHz / MHz (r.f.)
• Attack/sustain (internal dynamics)/decay -- sound
envelope
• Acoustics / Psychoacoustics / binaural hearing
• Absorbed / Reflected
• Direct / Indirect (echo & reverberation)
Some issues with sound
• Equal loudness principle--depending on loudness we don’t
hear low and high frequencies as well as we hear middle
• Masking--Hiding of some sounds by other sounds by other
sounds when each is a different frequency and they are
presented together. Loud over soft / lower-pitched over
higher
• Acoustical phase--the time relationship between two or
more sound waves at a given point in their cycles
• Timbre--a sound’s unique tone quality or tone color
Acoustical issues
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Ergonomics – human element in designing room
Sound Absorption and Reflection
Diffusion--scattering of sound waves
Diffraction--spreading or bending
Resonance--vibration of an object at the same
frequency as the original body’s frequency
• Lively or Dead Room
• Isolation
Sound Frequency Spectrum
• Bass
– Low bass, 1st & 2nd octaves, 16-64 Hz
– Upper bass, 3rd& 4th octaves, 64-256 Hz
• Midrange
– 5th, 6th & 7th octaves, 256 - 2,048 Hz
– Upper midrange: 8th octave, 2,048 - 4,096 Hz
• Treble
– 9th & 10th octaves, 4,096 - 16,384 Hz
• 20 to 20,000 Hz, sort of (plus outline)
‘Hearing Test’
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High frequency test
Range of frequencies (oscillator)
10 – 200 Hz
22 kHz down to 8 kHz
C Scale notes
Mics -- Converting Sound
• Sound Frequency Spectrum
– Bass, midrange, treble
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Frequency / Hertz
Amplitude / decibels
Acoustics
Direct / indirect sound
– Echo / reverberations
Microphone Directional Patterns
• Omnidirectional / nondirectional
• Unidirectional / Directional/ cardioid
– Super, hyper, ultra
• Bidirectional
• (see reading for diagrams)
Applications of polar patterns
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Football miking
News live shot
Basketball game
Studio interview
News anchor
In audio recording
studio
• Shotgun boom pole
Cardioid range
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Cardioid
Supercardioid
Hypercardioid
Ultradirectional
– Shotgun mic
Professional Mic types
• Moving coil/dynamic
• Ribbon
• Capacitor/condensor (power source)
– Electret condensor
• Transducer – changes energy from one form
to another – in this case sound waves into
an electrical current
Mics on cameras
• +48v ONLY for mics that require phantom
power (some of the shotguns)
• Line vs. mic input
• XA 20 cameras – Audio Technica mini plug
mics
• Always use lavalier for close up audio
More about mics and sound
• Common audio connectors
– RCA (phono), ¼” (phone), mini-plug, XLR
– Jack (‘female’) vs. plug (‘male’)
– Firewire, HDMI, etc.
• Close vs. distant miking
– Cross-pair, mid-side, coincident (stereo)
• Wide – range of frequencies
• Flat – accurately recreates frequencies
• Colored response – changes frequencies (lavaliere
boosts high frequencies, for example
Close miking when you
can’t get close
• Visible mics
– What kinds of productions
– ‘dressing the mic’
• Hidden mics
– Under clothing, in set pieces
– Wired vs. wireless
• Boom pole
– Fishpole, giraffe, perambulator
• Looping / ADR
– High percentage of TV and movie content
Common mic types
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lavaliere
headset
handheld
studio/boom mounted
TV boom
– Perambulator boom, giraffes, fishpole
• PZM (boundary mic)
Audio Mixing
• Three things you mix
– Sources, techniques, aesthetics
• ProTools or Adobe Audition (DAW)
• Stereo or multi-track recording
• 5 console functions
– Amplify, switch, route, mix, balance
• Various console inputs
• Layering, in moviemaking
Other console terms
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Program / Audition
Monitor vs. cue
Master pot
VU meter / PPM (analog / LED)
Muting system
Foldback (IFB note)
Pad / trim / gain / AGC
Pan Pot
Submixer & pre-amp
Other audio mixing terms
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Compressor
Limiter
Equalizer (EQ)
Filters
– High pass, low pass, band pass, notch
• Stereo vs. multi-track recording
– Basics of multi-track / mixdown
Three things you mix...
• Music
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Production library, royalty-free loops
BMI, ASCAP, SESAC
blanket license vs. ‘needle drop’
SoundExchange fees
• SFX -- Production library, Foley
• Voice
– Narration vs. dialogue
– Straight voice, VO/music, donut, jingle
• Teams go record sounds, due before 5:00 -->
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