#### Transcript Heading - Gospel Oak Primary & Nursery School

```How we teach calculation
at Gospel Oak
A guide for Parents and Carers
Aims
• To explain how we teach your children +,
-, x and ÷.
• To explain why we use these methods.
• To give you some ideas as to how you can
Why is maths taught
differently now?
• When I was at school, maths lessons involved teaching rules of how
to do things. We didn't question and often we didn't understand why
we were "carrying ten" or "borrowing one".
• This meant that I was fine as long as I remembered the rules and as
long as the type of question didn’t change, but I had no clear
understanding of what I was doing and why it worked.
• Activities like this were probably okay for the children who ‘got’
maths, but not for those who struggled or were uninspired by the
work on offer.
By the end of Key Stage 2, we
• Recall key number facts e.g. all +/- facts for each
number to 10, times tables, number bonds etc.
• Have a good understanding of the 4 operations (+
- x ÷).
• Have an efficient, reliable method of calculation for
each operation.
• Apply their understanding to problems and real life
situations.
• Use a calculator effectively.
Children need:
• To be taught the specific skills needed for
calculation.
• To understand what they are doing and why.
• To understand why maths is important in a real
life context.
• To leave education with a solid understanding of
maths in order to help them in adult life.
• And most of all... to enjoy maths.
Our methods
• All our calculation methods are based on developing
an understanding of the number system and
building on existing mental strategies.
• We want children to develop a mathematical
understanding, a feel for the value of number, NOT
just to learn a mechanical method that is prone to
error.
• Once they fully understand what they are doing,
they can move to more compact methods.
child is an individual and all
children develop their
mathematical understanding
at a different pace.
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Plus
Sum
And
Altogether/together
Increase
More
Total
• Recall of number bonds.
• Using near doubles.
• Partitioning (splitting a number up) and recombining
(putting it back together again).
• Counting on and counting back in steps of 1, 10, 100 or
1000.
• Adding the nearest multiple of 10, 100 or 1000 and
number.
• Using the relationship between addition and subtraction.
Overview of progression in
• R/Y1 - children are encouraged to develop a mental picture of the
• Y2 - children use empty number lines to count on from the larger
number.
• Y3 - children continue to use empty number lines with increasingly
large numbers, and begin to use informal paper and pencil
methods.
• Y4 - children begin to carry below the line.
• Y5 - children extend the carrying method to numbers with at least
four digits.
• Y6 - children extend the carrying method to numbers with any
number of digits.
SUBTRACTION
Subtraction vocabulary
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Subtract/subtraction
Minus
Take away
Take from
Fewer
Decrease
Difference between
Reduce
Mental strategies for
subtraction
• Recall of addition and subtraction facts.
• Finding a small difference by counting up.
• Partitioning (splitting a number up) and recombining
(putting it back together again).
• Counting on and counting back in steps of 1, 10, 100 or
1000.
• Subtracting the nearest multiple of 10, 100 or 1000 and
adjusting e.g. take away 10 then add 1 in order to take away
9 from a number.
• Using the relationship between addition and subtraction.
Overview of progression in
subtraction
• R/Y1 - children are encouraged to develop a mental picture of the
• Y2 - children use empty number lines to count on and count back.
• Y3 - children continue to use empty number lines with increasingly
large numbers, and begin to use informal paper and pencil
methods.
• Y4 - children extend their use of written methods.
• Y5 - children extend the decomposition method to larger numbers
and to decimal numbers.
• Y6 - children extend the decomposition method to more complex
numbers.
MULTIPLICATION
Multiplication vocabulary
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Multiply/multiplication/multiplied by
Times
Times table
Product
Groups of
Lots of
Mental strategies for
multiplication
• Using knowledge of doubling and halving.
• Using recall of times tables facts.
• Using closely related facts e.g. 13 x 11 = (13 x 10) + (13 x
1).
• Multiplying by 10, 100 or 1000.
• Partitioning numbers e.g. 23 x 4 = (20 x 4) + (3 x 4).
• Using knowledge of factors.
Overview of progression in
multiplication
• R/Y1 - children will experience equal groups of objects and will
count in 2s and 10s and begin to count in 5s.
• Y2 - children will extend their understanding of multiplication.
• Y3 - children continue to use repeated addition, numberlines and
arrays, and begin to use informal paper and pencil methods.
• Y4 - children will continue to use arrays, leading into the grid
method of multiplication.
• Y5 - children extend their use of the grid method to larger numbers
and decimals.
• Y6 - children extend their use of the grid method to larger numbers
and decimals.
DIVISION
Division vocabulary
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Divide/division/divided by
Divisible by
Share/share equally
Group
Mental strategies for division
• Using knowledge of doubling and halving.
• Using times tables facts to find division facts e.g. 3 x 5 =
15 so 15 ÷ 5 = 3.
• Using closely related facts e.g. 21 ÷ 7 = 3 so 210 ÷ 7 = 30,
210 ÷ 70 = 3, 2.1 ÷ 7 = 0.3 etc.
• Dividing by 10, 100 or 1000.
• Using knowledge of factors.
Overview of progression in
division
• R/Y1 - children will understand equal groups and share items out in
play and problem solving.
• Y2 - children will extend their understanding of division.
• Y3 - children continue to use repeated subtraction and
numberlines.
• Y4 - children will develop their use of repeated subtraction, and
begin to use informal paper and pencil methods.
• Y5 - children will continue to use a written method to solve division
questions.
• Y6 - children will continue to use a written method to solve division
questions.
How you can support your
child
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Look for and talk about numbers in the environment
Play games
Shopping
Counting on/back
Number bonds
Doubles/halves
Times tables
Division facts
```