Lesson B - Teacher SSRU

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Transcript Lesson B - Teacher SSRU

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Lesson B : Grammar
Reported Speech
When changing direct speech into indirect
speech, we have to take care of the following
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Lesson B
I Tense
1) The tense does not change if the reporting verb is
in the present, , present perfect or future
Examples :
Direct : Someone says, “ I’ve eaten lunch.”
Indirect : He says that he has eaten lunch.
Direct : someone says, “ I enjoyed it.”
Indirect : He says that he enjoyed it.
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Lesson B
2) When the reporting verb is in the past form
(said, told) but reports or tells about things as a \
general truth.
Examples :
Direct : He said, “Nitroglycerine is explosive.”
Indirect : He said that nitroglycerine is explosive.
Direct : She told me, “The earth moves round the sun.
Indirect : She told me that the earth moves
round the sun.
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Lesson B
3) The verb form in indirect speech will be changed into
the past when the reporting verb is in the past tense
(said, told)
Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
1) present simple (V.1)
1) past simple (V.2)
2) present progressive
2) past progressive
(is/am/are + V1+.ing)
(was/were + V1+.ing)
3) present perfect
3) past perfect (had + V.3)
(has/have + V3)
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Lesson B
3) The verb form in indirect speech will be changed into
the past when the reporting verb is in the past tense
(said, told)
Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
4) past simple (V.2)
4) past perfect (had.+V.3)
5) modal
5) modal
(will/can/may + V.1)
6) must
6) had to
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Lesson B
Examples :
Direct Speech Statement
: I went home early.
: I had seen the film
I need a holiday.
I’m going home.
I don’t like tea.
I have finished it.
I spoke to them.
I can swim.
I will be at home.
I may arrive later.
I could help you.
You should see the film.
I must go.
Indirect Speech Statement
Mac said that he needed a holiday.
Sue said that she was going home.
Ted said he didn’t like tea.
Ann said she had finished it.
Sam said he spoke to them.
Sam said he had spoken to them.
Lyn said she went home early.
Lyn said she had gone home early.
Jim said he had seen the film before.
Joe said he could swim.
Lee said he would be at home.
Pat said she might arrive
Don told me he could help me.
Ron told me I should see the film.
Paul said he must go.
Paul said he had to go. he might arrive
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Lesson B
II. Pronouns, Adjective, Adverb
1) Pronoun (I, we, you and possessive adjective my,
your must be changed
Direct : Bill said, “I’m on holiday with my friend.”
Indirect : Bill said that he was on holiday with his
2) Adverb
Adverbs telling about place and time must be
changed in the indirect speech.
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Lesson B
Table for changing place and time
Direct Speech Statement
this + the place
next week/year
last week
Indirect Speech Statement
that day
that night
the next day/the following day/on
+ name of day
the day before/the previous day/on
+ bane of day
that/the + place
the following week/year
the week before/the previous week
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Lesson B
Indirect Question
The rules about tense, pronoun, adjective and adverb
can be applied to questions in the same way as they
apply to statements but use different reporting verbs –
ask / wonder/ want to know in indirect question.
The policeman asked the men what they were doing.
– The policeman asked the men, “What are you doing?”
= The policeman asked the men what they were doing.
– She asked, “How is your brother?”
= She asked how my brother was.
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Lesson B
1) Wh- questions
The subject and verb are not inverted in indirect speech
– “What are you doing?”
– The policeman asked the men what they were doing.
She asked John who paid the waiter.
subj. + V + obj.
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Lesson B
Speaker’s Words
– “What do you want?
– “Where does she live?”
– “Why did you say that?”
Indirect Question
– I asked what she wanted.
– They asked where she lived.
– She asked why I had said that.
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Lesson B
2) Yes / no questions
Put if or whether before the indirect question ( subject + verb ),
we don’t use Verb to do ( do, does or did )
Speaker’s Words
Indirect Question
– “Do you want a drink?”
– He asked if I wanted a drink.
– “Are you hungry?”
– I wondered if she was hungry.
– “Can you speak Chinese?” – They wanted to know whether I
could speak Chinese.
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Lesson B
3) After the word “ask” there is an object to follow
( me, him, John )
Example :
– He asked me if (whether) I was tired.
– I asked him who he was looking for.
– She asked John who paid the waiter.
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Lesson B
4) Order, request, warning, advice, invitation
We use indirect speech in reporting “order,
request, warning, advice and invitation” by
using the pattern : verb + object + to infinitive.
The reporting verb used in reporting these
sentences are as follows : tell, ask, warn, advise,
invite, remind.
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Lesson B
Speaker’s Words
– “Wait outside.”
– “Could you carry some
bags, Jim?”
– “Keep out of this room
at all times.”
– “You should phone
the police?
– “Would you like to have
dinner with me?”
Indirect Speech
She told the man to
wait outside.
I asked Jim to carry
some bags.
He warned them to
keep out of that room
at all times.
I advised him to phone
the police.
She invited me to have
dinner with her.
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Lesson B
5) We use the pattern “verb + to infinitive” in
reporting about “offer, promise, and threat”.
Speaker’s words
– Can I do the washing up?
– “I’ll phone the police!”
Indirect speech
– I offered to do the
washing up.
– She threatened to
phone the police.
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Lesson B
6) In reported requests, advice, commands, warns
which are in negative form, use the pattern of “not +
to infinitive”
Speaker’s words
Indirect speech
– “Don’t be stupid.”
– She told me not
to be stupid.
– “Don’t wait for me.”
– She told me not to
wait for her.
– “Don’t go on holiday yet.” – She advised him not
to go on holiday yet.
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Lesson B
Note :
the verb “forbid” can be used without “not”
because it has the negative meaning.
– She forbade him to go.
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Lesson B
1) The verbs in the same group of “say” can be used
without objects.
admit deny report feel think answer indicate
believe hope understand declare observe
mention notice remark prove (etc.)
2) The verbs in the same group of “tell” must have
advise notify teach assure promise warn convince
remind inform show (etc.)
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Lesson B
Choose the best answer.
1. “I have something to show you,” I said to her.
I told her ……………… . 1
2 “Are you leaving today or tomorrow
morning?” said his secretary.
3 He said, “My wife has just been made a
He said that … .
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Lesson B
4. “Will you practice English every day?” asked
the teacher.
The teacher asked the student … .
5. “If you give me some wire, I’ll mend the fuse
for you,” said my cousin.
6. Ae asked … .
7. I don’t know when … . 1
8. The young man asked Mary … . 1
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9. Ask him ……………… his job. 1
Lesson B
10. He said, “Get out of my way.” 2
11. No one knows where ……………… . 1
12. He asked me ……………… . 4
13. “Follow that car,” Nucha said to the taxidriver. 3
14. “Don’t argue with you father,” I said. 4
15. “Wait for me at the bridge,” said the young
man. The young man told her … . 3
16. “Let’s go to the cinema,” said Ann. 4
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