Effective English for Colleges, 11e, by Hulbert

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Transcript Effective English for Colleges, 11e, by Hulbert

Effective English
for Colleges
11th Edition
Hulbert & Miller
Chapter 9
SENTENCES:
ELEMENTS, TYPES, AND
STRUCTURES
© 2006 SOUTH-WESTERN EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING
Learning Objectives
1
To identify independent clauses
2
To identify dependent clauses and their
functions
3
To identify phrases and their functions
4
To identify declarative, imperative,
exclamatory, and interrogative sentences
5
To identify simple, compound, complex, and
compound-complex sentence structures
Effective English for Colleges, 11e, by Hulbert & Miller
Chapter 9, Slide 2
Sentence Elements
 A sentence contains a subject and a
predicate, expresses a complete thought,
and is grammatically independent.
 A clause contains both a subject and a
verb and may be
 Independent
(expresses a complete thought and
can stand alone as a sentence) or
 Dependent (does not express a complete
thought and cannot stand alone).
Refer to CHECKPOINT 1.
Effective English for Colleges, 11e, by Hulbert & Miller
Chapter 9, Slide 3
Kinds of Dependent Clauses
ADJECTIVE CLAUSES modify nouns or pronouns in
main clauses and often answer what kind? which one?
how many?
RESTRICTIVE CLAUSES are essential to the meaning
of the sentence and are not set off with commas.
NONRESTRICTIVE CLAUSES provide additional detail
or description and are set off with commas.
Refer to CHECKPOINT 2.
Effective English for Colleges, 11e, by Hulbert & Miller
Chapter 9, Slide 4
Kinds of Dependent Clauses
(continued)
ADVERB CLAUSES modify verbs, adjectives, or
adverbs; begin with subordinating conjunctions; and
answer the questions why? where? when? how? how
often? and to what extent?
NOUN CLAUSES function as subjects, objects, or
subject complements; are often introduced by who,
whom, whose, that, why, what, and whether; and are
always dependent.
Refer to CHECKPOINTS 3 and 4.
Effective English for Colleges, 11e, by Hulbert & Miller
Chapter 9, Slide 5
Sentence Elements
(continued)
 A phrase is a group of related words that
does not contain both a subject and a
verb.
 A primary phrase (or clause) may contain
another type of phrase (a secondary
phrase) that modifies words in the primary
phrase or clause.
Refer to CHECKPOINT 5.
Effective English for Colleges, 11e, by Hulbert & Miller
Chapter 9, Slide 6
Kinds of Verbal Phrases
 Gerund phrases



Consist of a gerund (verb form ending in –ing), any
modifier(s), and any object(s).
Function only as nouns.
Serve as subjects, objects, or complements.
 Participial phrases


Consist of a participle (verb form ending in –ing, -d, or
–ed), any modifier(s), and any object(s).
Function as adjectives to modify nouns or pronouns.
Refer to CHECKPOINT 6.
Effective English for Colleges, 11e, by Hulbert & Miller
Chapter 9, Slide 7
Kinds of Verbal Phrases
(continued)
 Infinitive phrases


Consist of the word to (implied or expressed) plus its
object(s), and any modifier(s).
Usually function as nouns but can also function as
adjectives or adverbs.
 Prepositional phrases


Consist of a preposition and its objects, plus any
modifiers of the object.
Function as adjectives and adverbs.
Refer to CHECKPOINT 7.
Refer to APPLICATIONS 9-1 through 9-4.
Effective English for Colleges, 11e, by Hulbert & Miller
Chapter 9, Slide 8
Sentence Types
A declarative sentence makes a statement and ends with a period.
An imperative sentence gives a direct command or makes a
request, ends with a period, and most often has you as the
understood subject.
An exclamatory sentence (not always a complete sentence)
expresses strong feeling and ends with an exclamation point.
An interrogative sentence asks a direct question and ends with a
question mark.
 Indirect question reports someone else’s question and ends with a period.
 Courteous request asks someone to take action and ends with a period.
Refer to CHECKPOINTS 8 and 9.
Refer to APPLICATION 9-5.
Effective English for Colleges, 11e, by Hulbert & Miller
Chapter 9, Slide 9
Sentence Structure
SIMPLE SENTENCES contain only one independent clause
and no dependent clauses.
COMPOUND SENTENCES contain two or more
independent clauses that are joined by a coordinating
conjunction, a conjunctive adverb, or a semicolon.
COMPLEX SENTENCES contain one independent clause
and at least one dependent clause.
COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCES contain two or more
independent clauses and at least one dependent clause.
Refer to CHECKPOINT 11.
Refer to APPLICATIONS 9-6 and 9-7.
Refer to CHAPTER 9 REVIEW.
Refer to APPLY YOUR KNOWLEDGE.
Effective English for Colleges, 11e, by Hulbert & Miller
Chapter 9, Slide 10