Notes - Plain Local Schools

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Transcript Notes - Plain Local Schools

The Eight Parts of
Speech
The Classification of words
8 Parts of Speech
 1. Nouns
 2. Pronouns
 3. Verbs
 4. Adjectives
 5. Adverbs
 6. Prepositions
 7. Conjunctions
 8. Interjections
1. Noun
 A noun is a
person, place,
thing, or idea.
Nouns
Some nouns we can perceive with
our five senses. These are persons,
places, and things.
Some nouns cannot be perceived
by the senses. They are ideas,
thoughts, emotions, and beliefs.
Examples
Persons:
- Thomas
Jefferson
- Architect
- Girl
Places
- Salem
- Library
- Continent
Examples
Things:
- Desk
- Barn
- Boot
Ideas:
- Curiosity
- Health
- Eternity
Common Nouns
 Common nouns
are a name
common to a
whole group. It
does not specify a
member of the
group. (frog)
Proper Nouns
 A proper noun is
the name of an
individual person,
place, or thing. It
is capitalized.
(Miss Mallon)
Examples
Common:
- singer
- river
- building
Proper
- Mariah Carey
- Mississippi River
- GlenOak High
School
2. Pronouns
Pronouns are words used in place
of nouns to avoid awkward
repetition.
Pronouns
The word that the pronoun stands
for or refers to is its antecedent.
Ex: Kim said she would call the
airport. (Kim is the antecedent of
she.)
6 kinds of pronouns
 1. Personal (she, he, it, we)
 2. Compound personal (myself,
ourselves)
 3. Indefinite (some, both, everything)
 4. Demonstrative (this, that, these,
those)
 5. Interrogative (who, what, when)
 6. Relative (they relate)
Personal Pronouns
Takes the place of a person’s
name but may also take the place
of things.
Ex: Monica is a dancer. She has
the lead in the school musical.
Compound Personal
Pronouns
Pronouns that are combined with
the suffix -self or -selves.
Ex: myself, ourselves
Indefinite Pronouns
 These are
pronouns that do
not refer to a
specific person or
thing. They
sometimes have
antecedents.
Example:
The players practiced in the rain.
Some got sick.
Players is the antecedent for the
indefinite pronoun some.
No antecedent
example:
 Everything you say is true.
Another
No one
Anybody
Everything
Anyone
Either
Both
Each
Many
One
Few
Several
Demonstrative
Pronouns
This, That, These, Those: Pronouns
that point to what they are referring
to.
Example: This is the poem I wrote.
(This refers to poem)
Interrogative Pronouns
Pronouns that are used to ask
questions. (Whose, Who, Whom,
What, Which)
Example: Who won the game?
Relative Pronouns
Some pronouns are used to relate
one idea to another and these are
called relative pronouns.
Example: Zenobia, who conquered
Egypt in the third century, declared
herself Queen of the East.
3. Verbs
A verb tells what is happening in a
sentence.
A verb expresses action, condition,
or state of being.
2 verb categories
 ACTION VERBS:
- Tell what the
subject is doing
- May be physical
or mental
 LINKING VERBS:
- link or connect the
subject of a
sentence with a
noun, pronoun, or
adjective
Action Verbs
 Examples:
- Collide (visible)
- Run (visible)
- Enjoy (not)
- Decide (not)
Linking Verbs
 Can be sensory (like sounds, looks, and
tastes), can be verbs of condition (like
grew, became, seemed), or can be verbs
of being.
 May have helping verbs with the main
verb.
 Example: This book is now regarded as
a classic.
Verbs of Being
- am
- are
- were
- is
- was
- be
- been
- being
2 kinds of action verbs
Transitive: Who or what receives
the action.
Intransitive: Nothing receives the
action.
Examples (Transitive)
He moved the car.
Did they pass the law?
*Ask who or what receives the
action.*
4. Adjectives
Adjectives modify or describe
nouns and pronouns.
They tell which one, what kind, how
many, or how much.
Adjectives
 There is a row of
yellow ducks.
 YELLOW says
what kind of
ducks so it is the
adjective.
The Articles
A, an, and the are considered
adjectives because they modify
nouns.
Predicate Adjectives
Sometimes the adjective comes
after the noun. This is a predicate
adjective.
EX: The cat seems hungry.
5. Adverbs
Modifies verbs, adjectives, and
other adverbs.
Adverbs are a lot like adjectives.
*Tell where, when, how, or to what
extent*
Examples:
WHERE: They lingered outside.
WHEN: The team left early.
HOW: The story ended happily.
TO WHAT EXTENT: The writing
was totally illegible.
6. Prepositions
Common way to link and show
relationships between words.
Prepositions have objects.
Example: The doctor went into the
house.
The preposition song!!
About
Above
Across
After
Around
At
Song








Before
Behind
Below
Beside
By
Down
During
For
 From
 In
 Inside
 Near
 Of
 Off
 On
Song
 Out
 Outside
 Over
 Through
 To
 Under
 Up
 With
 Without
7. The Conjunction
A conjunction is a word that
connects words, phrases, and
clauses.
Examples
 Conjunctions
 And
 But
 So
 Or
 For
 Yet
8. Interjection
 A word or group
of words that
expresses strong
feeling or
emotion.
 Wow! Help! Oh
no! Attention!
Source
Building English Skills