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Five ways to integrate/blend quotes:
Integrating
Quotations Into
Essays
Five ways to
integrate/blend
Why Use T-L-Q’s?
• Always integrate quotations into
your text. NEVER JUST DROP A
QUOTATION IN WITHOUT AN
APPROPRIATE TRANSITION AND
LEAD-IN! In other words, you must
use your own words to introduce
every direct quote.
Paraphrase
• A restatement of a text in your own words,
often to simplify or clarify meaning.
• In addition, the author conveys every detail
about Tom’s brush with death on the ledge
which includes every placement of his hands
and feet, as well as everything he thinks, sees,
and hears while out there.
Number 1
1. Lead into a quotation with a VERB – use a comma.
For example, Paul, trying to keep Kemmerich’s spirits up
encouragingly states, “Just eat decently and you’ll soon be
well again” (30).
Introductory verbs like “states,” “argues,” “implies,” “writes,”
“claims,” or “agrees” should be in the present tense and should
accurately reflect the intention of the passage. When quoted
material is introduced with a comma or colon, the first quoted
word is CAPITALIZED. Make your verbs strong verbs. Instead
of using “says,” consider words that describe the emotion of the
statement such as “utters,” “declares,” “proclaims,” “affirms,”
“shouts,” “cries,” etc.
Number 2
2. Lead into a quotation with the word THAT.
Moreover, reflecting upon the enemy, Paul realizes
that “they are more human and more brotherly
towards one another . . . than we are” (169).
When quoted material is introduced by “that” or when
it forms a part of a sentence, the first quoted word is
NOT capitalized.
Number 3
3. Lead into a quotation with a
complete sentence. Follow with a
colon and two spaces before the
quotation.
Furthermore, Paul describes his haunting
future perfectly: “We will be weary,
broken, burnt out, rootless, and without
any hope” (254).
Number 4
4. Lead into a quotation with an
introductory phrase or clause.
For instance, during a bombardment an
inexperienced recruit “creeps under [Paul’s]
arm, his head close to [Paul’s] chest” (61).
Number 5
5. Split the quotation.
Additionally, Paul claims, “It’s all rot that they put in the
war-news,” in order to further comment “about the
good humour of the troops” (125).
You would need to integrate a T-L for the above direct
quote.
Also, in general, don’t end a paragraph with a quote;
instead, end it with your own thought.
Ellipses
Ellipses (. . .) indicate that some
unnecessary words have been left out of a
quotation. Note that when you are just
pulling out and quoting a word or short
phrase you do not need to use an ellipsis
to represent that something else was with
it. Also, do not use an ellipsis to indicate that
you have left out the beginning of a sentence.
Brackets
Use brackets [ ] to indicate any
changes/alterations you make to
quotations while fitting them into your
sentences (for reasons of style, verb
tense, or general understanding).
Weaving
What is Weaving????
• Weaving is an advanced form of TLQ—
Transition, Lead in, Quote. Weaving refers to
what you establish in the lead-in or lead-out of
your quote. This can include specific context
to set up the quote or perhaps even some
commentary.
• To weave effectively a writer incorporates the
most essential 12-15 words from the quote
and blends it with their lead-in/lead-out.
What do I include in the lead in after
my transition?
• Establish context from where you take the quote
from the short story/novel for your lead-in.
• Answer at least 2-3 of the following questions
regarding your quote in order to provide context for
your lead-in:
• Where, Who, What, When, Why, How? Where
does this happen in the story? Why is it important?
What is the significance? When does this happen in
the story? Who is narrating this?
Weaving Continued
• Quote: “as usual the window didn’t budge” (7).
• For example, the protagonist Tom Benecke reveals
at the beginning of the story that “as usual the
window didn’t budge” (Finney 7), foreshadowing his
upcoming difficulties with that same window.
• Who is thinking this? The protagonist, Tom
Benecke
• When does this happen in the story? The
beginning
• Why is the quote important? It establishes
foreshadowing
Transitions
To Emphasize or Conclude
definitely, particularly, obviously, in fact, indeed, in any
case, absolutely, positively, naturally, always, forever,
never, emphatically, unquestionably, undoubtedly,
undeniably, without reservation, certainly
Transitions
To Give an Example
for example, for instance, in this case, on this occasion,
in this situation, to illustrate, in addition, furthermore
To Summarize or Conclude
In brief, on the whole, accordingly, thus, as a result,
consequently, ultimately, finally, undoubtedly
Transitions
To Add or Compare
and, again, and then, besides, equally important, finally, further,
furthermore, nor, too, next, moreover, additionally, likewise, in
fact, compared to, as
To Contrast
whereas, but, yet, on the other hand, however, nevertheless, on
the contrary, in comparison, where, up against, balanced against,
but, although, conversely, meanwhile, after all, in contrast,
although this may be true
Weak Verbs vs. Strong Verbs
WEAK VERBS for integrating quotations and analysis:
Says, goes on to say, tells, this quote shows, states
For example, Mr. White says, “I wish my son alive again”
(57). This quote shows….
Stronger verb choice: Additionally, after his wife begs him
to use the monkey paw, Mr. White reluctantly proclaims,
“I wish my son alive again” (57).
You Try: Furthermore, when it seems as if his dead son is
knocking at the door, Mr. White __adverb___
_strong verb choice___, “Don’t let him in” (58).