THE PASSIVE

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Transcript THE PASSIVE

THE PASSIVE
Module 4 – Advertisement
- Understanding the language of ads
- Recognizing the variables in ads
- Understanding the basic passive form
- Changing Active to Passive
- Changing Passive to Active
THE POWER OF MEDIA
Check the ads below and think of:
1. What is the product/brand/service?
2. What is the message of the ads?
3. Describe the strength of the ads?
THE ADS!
Ads 1
Ads 2
Ads 3
Ads 4
LANGUAGE OF ADVERTISEMENT
• Connotation (the feeling in a word)
e.g.: armchair  suggests comfort
• Compound words
e.g.: top-quality, longer-lasting
• Very positive
• Persuasive
• Grammatical features are sometimes ignored
PASSIVE CONSTRUCTION
She writes a letter everyday.
The boy is reading a book.
The chicken was being eaten by the man.
Active Voice
• Active Voice – indicates that the
subject of the verb is doing the
action.
Active Voice
 These examples show that the subject is
doing the verb's action.
 Kristy will give a book report to the class.
 Kristy (subject) is doing the action of giving (verb).
Reasons to Use the Active Voice
MORE DIRECT!
• Compare
– Active: The waiter dropped the tray of
food.
– Passive: The tray of food was dropped by
the waiter.
Passive Voice

Passive voice is:
- less direct
- less forceful
- less concise
When to Use Passive Voice
Use the passive voice in the following situations:

You do not know or do not want to reveal the performer of an
action.

You want to emphasize the receiver of an action.

You want to emphasize who does the action (the doer)
BASIC RULES
Basic rules in forming the passive:
1. The object of an active sentence  the subject
of the passive sentence.
2. Only transitive verbs (verbs that are followed by
an object) are used in the passive.
Impossible to use in the passive: happen, sleep,
come, seem.
- She sleeps on the sofa.
Form of Passive Voice Verbs
 The passive voice requires a "double verb" and
will always consist:
TO BE + PAST PARTICIPLE (Verb 3).
 Example:
Active: John baked the bread.
Passive: The bread was baked by John.
WAS is a form of the verb “be”
BAKED is the past participle of BAKE
Form of Passive Voice Verbs
 Be familiar with the forms of "to be“:
am, is, are, be
was, were
being
been
 Be familiar with the Past Participle Form
STEPS IN CONSTRUCTING THE PASSIVE SENTENCE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Decide the Subject and Object.
Exchange the position of Subject and Object
Decide the Tenses in the sentence (see the Verb)
Change the Active Verb Passive
CHECK: the plural/singular form!
Done!!! 
SIMPLE PRESENT PASSIVE
ACTIVE: Mary helps John
S V
O
PASSIVE: John is helped by Mary
PRESENT CONTINUOUS PASSIVE
ACTIVE: Mary is helping John
S
V
O
PASSIVE: John is being helped by Mary
PRESENT PERFECT PASSIVE
ACTIVE: Mary has helped John
S
V
O
PASSIVE: John has been helped by Mary
PAST SIMPLE PASSIVE
ACTIVE: Mary helped John
S
V
O
PASSIVE: John was helped by Mary
PAST CONTINUOUS PASSIVE
ACTIVE: Mary was helping John
S
V
O
PASSIVE: John was being helped by Mary
PAST PERFECT PASSIVE
ACTIVE: Mary had helped John
S
V
O
PASSIVE: John had been helped by Mary
be going to + infinitive
ACTIVE: Mary is going to help John
S
V
O
PASSIVE: John is going to be helped by Mary
modal + infinitive
ACTIVE: Mary will help John
S
V
O
PASSIVE: John will be helped by Mary
modal + perfect infinitive
ACTIVE: Mary will have helped John
S
V
O
PASSIVE: John will have been helped by Mary
She has been writing letters all day long
Letters have been being written by her all day long.
TENSES
ACTIVE
PASSIVE
Mary helps John
John is helped by Mary
Present Continuous
Mary is helping John
John is being helped by
Mary
Present Perfect
Mary has helped
John
John has been helped by
Mary
Simple Past
Mary helped John
John was helped by Mary
Past Continuous
Mary was helping
John
John was being helped by
Mary
Past Perfect
Mary had helped
John
John had been helped by
Mary
Be going to +
infinitive
Mary is going to
help John
John is going to be
helped by Mary
Modal + infinitive
Mary will help John
John will be helped by
Mary
Modal + perfect
infinitive
Mary will have
helped John
John will have been
helped by Mary
SUMMARY
Simple Present
Let’s Practice
 Directions: Change the sentences below to the
active voice.
1. The statue is visited by hundreds of tourists every
year.
2. My books were stolen yesterday.
3. These books had been left in the classroom.
4. Coffee is raised in many parts of Hawaii by
plantation workers.
5. The house had been broken into while the owners
were on vacation.
Let’s Practice
 Directions: Change the sentences below to the
passive voice.
1. Children cannot open these bottles easily.
2. The government built a road right outside her front
door.
3. Mr. Ross broke the antique vase as he walked
through the store.
4. When she arrived, the changes amazed her.
5. The construction workers are making street repairs
all month long.
EXERCISE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Shakespeare wrote that play.
Bill will invite Ann to the party.
Alex is preparing that report.
Waitresses and waiters serve customers.
The teacher is going to explain the lesson.
EXERCISE
6.
7.
8.
9.
Shirley has suggested a new idea.
Two horses were pulling the farmer’s wagon.
Kathy had returned the book to the library.
By this time tomorrow, the president will have
made the announcement.
10. I didn’t write that note. Jim wrote it.
EXERCISE
PART B
1. Shakespeare wrote that play.
That play was written by Shakespeare
2. Bill will invite Ann to the party.
Ann will be invited to the party by Bill.
3. Alex is preparing that report.
That report is being prepared by Alex.
4. Waitresses and waiters serve customers.
Customers are served by waitresses and waiters.
5. The teacher is going to explain the lesson.
The lesson is going to be explained by the teacher.
EXERCISE
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Shirley has suggested a new idea.
A new idea has been suggested by Shirley.
Two horses were pulling the farmer’s wagon.
The farmer’s wagon was being pulled by two horses.
Kathy had returned the book to the library.
The book had been returned to the library by Kathy.
By this time tomorrow, the president will have made the
announcement.
By this time tomorrow, the announcement will have been made by
the president.
I didn’t write that note. Jim wrote it.
That note was not written by me. It was written by Jim.
PART C
1. Mary is reading a novel.
2. The kid was throwing a stone.
3. He has bought a car.
4. Someone had knocked the door.
5. People in my country eat Yam.
6. She will win the jackpot.
7. Ms. Jenkins would teach the mother tongue to him.
8. The cat is eating the fish.
9. The librarian has offered a book to them.
10. His girlfriend wrote a letter to him.
CAUSATIVE
 We cause someone to do something for us.
Example:
1. I had my watch repaired (by someone).
2. I got my watch repaired (by someone).
CAUSATIVE - PATTERN
SUBJECT
(THE OWNER)
HAVE/GET
I
had
my hair
done (yesterday)
We
have had
the car
serviced
(Next month) I
am going to get
my bike
repaired
I
need to get
the hard disk
upgraded
OBJECT
(WHAT IS OWNED)
PAST PARTICIPLE
The past participle (Verb 3) is used after have and get to
give a passive meaning. There is little or no difference
between have and get.
CAUSATIVE
More Examples:
1. They painted Mrs. Crane’s house.
Mrs. Crane had her house painted.
2. I spilled some tomato sauce on my suit coat. Now I
need someone to clean my suit.
I spilled some tomato sauce on my suit coat. Now I
need to get my suit cleaned.
PRESENT CAUSATIVE
1. SIMPLE PRESENT CAUSATIVE
They paint Mrs. Crane’s house.
Mrs. Crane has/gets her house painted.
2. PRESENT CONTINUOUS CAUSATIVE
They are painting Mrs. Crane’s house.
Mrs. Crane is having/is getting her house painted.
3. PRESENT PERFECT CAUSATIVE
They have painted Mrs. Crane’s house
Mrs. Crane has had/has got her house painted.
4. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS CAUSATIVE
They have been painting Mrs. Crane’s house
Mrs. Crane has been having/has been getting her house painted.
PAST CAUSATIVE
1. SIMPLE PAST CAUSATIVE
They painted Mrs. Crane’s house.
Mrs. Crane had/got her house painted.
2. PAST CONTINUOUS CAUSATIVE
They were painting Mrs. Crane’s house.
Mrs. Crane was having/was getting her house painted.
3. PAST PERFECT CAUSATIVE
They had painted Mrs. Crane’s house
Mrs. Crane had had/had got her house painted.
4. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS CAUSATIVE
They had been painting Mrs. Crane’s house
Mrs. Crane had been having/had been getting her house painted.
FUTURE CAUSATIVE
1. SIMPLE FUTURE CAUSATIVE
They will paint Mrs. Crane’s house.
Mrs. Crane will have/will get her house painted.
2. FUTURE CONTINUOUS CAUSATIVE
They will be painting Mrs. Crane’s house.
Mrs. Crane will be having/will be getting her house painted.
3. FUTURE PERFECT CAUSATIVE
They will have painted Mrs. Crane’s house
Mrs. Crane will have had/will have got her house painted.
EXERCISE ON CAUSATIVE
Rewrite each sentence so that it contains Causative
form.
1. A painter painted our house last month.
2. The hairdresser is cutting my hair this afternoon.
3. Someone has stolen my motorbike.
4. The dentist has taken out all of Ricky’s teeth.
5. Someone broke Harry’s nose in a fight.
EXERCISE ON CAUSATIVE
6. They have been fixing my car for 2 weeks but
with no result.
7. They’ve just painted Ann’s portrait.
8. The mechanic will service my car tomorrow.
9. Someone broke into Tom’s house last week.
10. They have just cut my hair.
EXERCISE ON CAUSATIVE (ANSWER)
Rewrite each sentence so that it contains Causative
form.
1. A painter painted our house last month.
We had/got our house painted last month.
2. The hairdresser is cutting my hair this afternoon.
I am having/am getting my hair cut this afternoon
3. Someone has stolen my motorbike.
I have had/have got my motorbike stolen
EXERCISE ON CAUSATIVE (ANSWER)
4. The dentist has taken out all of Ricky’s teeth.
Ricky has had/has got all of his teeth taken.
5. Someone broke Harry’s nose in a fight.
Harry had/got his nose broken in a fight
EXERCISE ON CAUSATIVE (ANSWER)
6. They have been fixing my car for 2 weeks but with no result.
I have been having/have been getting my car fixed for 2
weeks but with no result.
7. They’ve just painted Ann’s portrait.
Ann has just had/has just got her portrait painted.
8. The mechanic will service my car tomorrow.
I will have/will get my car serviced tomorrow.
EXERCISE ON CAUSATIVE (ANSWER)
9. Someone broke into Tom’s house last week.
Tom had/got his house broken into last week.
10. They have just cut my hair.
I have just had/have just got my hair cut.
EXERCISE
1. a. This rug is made by my aunt.
b. This rug was made by my aunt two years ago.
c. This rug has been made by my aunt.
2. a. Rice is grown in India.
b. Rice was grown in India in 1990s.
c. Rice has been grown in India for 40 years.
EXERCISE
3. a. My sweater is made in England.
b. My sweater was made in England in 1990.
c. My sweater has been made so carefully.
4. a. The Washington Monument is visited by hundreds of people
every day.
b. In 1992, The Washington Monument was visited by hundreds of
people every day.
c. The Washington Monument has been visited by hundreds of
people so far this year.
EXERCISE
5. a. Beethoven’s Seventh Symphony is performed at
the concert.
b. Beethoven’s Seventh Symphony was performed at
the concert last night.
c. Beethoven’s Seventh Symphony has been
performed for several times in this hall.
FINAL EXAM MATERIAL
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. Listening
2. Reading (Module 1-5)
3. Cloze passage
4. Vocab and Multi-part Verbs
5. Present Tenses
6. Past Tenses
7. Passive
8. Preference
9. Causative
FINAL EXAM MATERIAL
ESSAY
1. Tenses (Present and Past)
2. Preferences
3. Passive
4. Causative