The Rise of Nation States

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Transcript The Rise of Nation States

THE RISE OF NATION STATES:
ENGLAND AND FRANCE
Ms. Carmelitano
THE RISE OF NATION STATES

By the 900’s CE Europe was split into small
feudal states
After the fall of the Carolingian Empire
 As the feudal system broke down, centralized
government began to take shape in Europe
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
Constant warfare caused European monarchs to
consolidate their power and create nation states
in the late medieval period

A state whose citizens share a language or common
descent.
UNITING ENGLAND
Vikings raided England throughout the 800’s CE
 Germanic tribe in England: Anglo-Saxons
 Alfred the Great: King 871-899 CE

Protected Anglo-Saxons from the Vikings
 United the kingdom, calling it England: “Land of the
Angles”


Canute, a Danish King took the throne in 1016
CE

United Anglo-Saxons and Vikings into one people
CONQUEST

King Edward the Confessor took the throne next
He died leaving no heir
 A struggle for the throne ensued


William the Conqueror

Duke of Normandy– a province North of France
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Claimed the English crown against Harold
Godwinson
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Viking descents, but French in culture and language
An Anglo-Saxon
October 14, 1066, Battle of Hastings
Harold was killed, William the Conqueror took the throne
 Created a centralized government in England
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HENRY II

Goals of English kings
1. Hold on to French lands
 2. Strengthen power over the church and nobles


Henry II: (1154-1189 CE) married Eleanor of
Aquitaine from France to strengthen the alliance
Holding land in France made him a vassal to the
French King
 He was also a king in England

HENRY’S GOVERNMENT

Royal Courts of Justice


Royal judges collected taxes, settled lawsuits,
punished crimes
Juries
Introduced juries to English courts
 Group of 12 loyal neighbors of the accused who
answered questions about facts of a case


Common law

Rulings made by England’s Royal Judges

(These became precedents for later laws)
MAGNA CARTA


Henry’s son Richard the Lion Hearted took the
throne, but was killed in the battle
Henry’s son John took the throne from 1199-1216 CE
John Softsword – because of his weak military abilities
 John lost all of the lands in Normandy to the French
 Over-taxed his subjects
 Alienated the church


June 15, 1215 CE – the subjects rebelled and forced
John to sign the Magna Carta (Great Charter)
Written by English nobles
 Guaranteed basic political rights and checked the power of
the king
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No taxation without representation, a jury trial, protection
under the law
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BREAK TIME
THE MODEL PARLIAMENT

Edward I
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
Needed money to fight the French ,Welsh, and Scots
1295 CE summoned two wealthy citizens (burgesses)
from every borough and two knights to serve as
parliament
This became the Legislative group in England
 November 1295 AD – knights, burgesses, bishops, lords met
at Westminster in London – the Middle Parliament
 Parliament was called when taxes were needed
 Bicameral (two house) legislature
 House of Commons:



Lower house made up of the commoners. Officials were voted
in
House of Lords:

Upper house, made up of lords and bishops. Officials were
royally appointed
FRANCE

Counts and Dukes ruled independently during
Feudalism
After the fall of the Charlemagne’s empire
 In 1000 CE: France was 47 different territories


The Capet family
A French noble family
 Hugh Capet – a duke who ruled Paris

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
He unified France under his rule
Capetian dynasty: French kings from 987 CE to 1328
CE
THE KINGDOM OF FRANCE
For 300 years Capetian Kings strengthened the
kingdom
 Philip II: Ruled from 1180 to 1223 CE

Took Normandy from King John
 France tripled in size under his reign
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KINGDOM OF FRANCE
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Louis IX
Philip’s grandson
 Created a French court of appeals
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This court could overturn decisions of local courts
Strengthening the central government’s power
Philip IV (1285 CE-1314 CE) created the EstatesGeneral
Quarreled with the Pope over power
 Called council of advisors to discuss the Pope’s Powers
(General Assembly) – this would become the Estate’s
General:
 Legislative body for France
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First Estate: church leaders
Second Estate: lords
Third Estate: commoners
BEGINNINGS OF DEMOCRACY

Parliament and the Estates General began to
give commoners a voice in government
Magna Carta: protected the rights of the commoners
 Juries, Common law, and Royal court systems:
strengthened the power of the central government
