World History Ch 12 - mrdarbyshistory.org

download report

Transcript World History Ch 12 - mrdarbyshistory.org

The Rise of Medieval Europe
Chapter 12
A.D. 500-1300
4/8/2015
John 3:16
1
Middle Ages
Sometimes referred
to a the “Dark Ages”
Transition between
ancient and modern
times
Roman urban world of
was destroyed
Life was in the
villages
4/8/2015
John 3:16
2
Chapter Themes
Movement: invasions
by Vikings, Magyars,
and Muslims
influence medieval
Europe
Cooperation: Nobles,
church officials and
peasants develop ties
of loyalty and service
to one another
4/8/2015
John 3:16
3
Chapter Themes
Uniformity: The
Catholic Church
affects every aspect
of medieval life
Conflict: European
kings, feudal lords,
and popes struggle
for political
dominance
4/8/2015
John 3:16
4
Frankish Rulers
Main Idea: Frankish rulers, like
Charlemagne, were exceptional rulers for
their time
Terms to define: mayor of palace, count
People to Meet: Clovis, Charles Martel,
Pepin the Short, Charlemagne, the Vikings
Places to locate: Frankish Empire,
Scandinavia
4/8/2015
John 3:16
5
Early Frank Rulers--Merovingian
Rulers
A.D. 400s
Settled now France and Western Germany
Franks emerged as strongest Germanic
tribe
Earlier rulers, Merovingian
(MEHR*uh*VIHN*jee*uhn) rulers, held
power until the early 700s
– Clovis, Charles Martel, Pepin the Short
4/8/2015
John 3:16
6
Clovis
King of the Franks
First Germanic ruler
to accept Catholicism
Military victories and
religious conversion
gave him stability
4/8/2015
John 3:16
7
Clovis
For generations,
kings had passed
their kingdoms to their
heirs
This turned out to be
unsuccessful due to
family infighting
New system was
Mayors of the Palace
4/8/2015
John 3:16
8
Mayors of the Palace
Political power had
passed from kings to
mayors of the palace
Previously, the
kingdom was divided
among the king’s
heirs
4/8/2015
John 3:16
9
Charles Martel
A.D. 714, Charles
Martel became mayor
of the palace
When Muslim forces
threatened Europe in
A.D. 732, Charles
(the Hammer) led the
successful defense of
Tours, in France
4/8/2015
John 3:16
10
Charles Martel
Tours victory won him
great prestige
Ensured Christianity
would remain the
dominate religion in
Europe
4/8/2015
John 3:16
11
Pepin the Short
Charles Martel’s son
A.D. 752, became
king of the Franks
The pope anointed
(put holy oil) him
making him a divinely
appointed ruler in
eyes of people
4/8/2015
John 3:16
12
Pepin the Short
Pepin expected to
help pope against
enemies
Pepin forced
Lombards (Germanic
people) to leave
Rome
4/8/2015
John 3:16
13
Pippin the Short
Gave pope large strip
of Lombard land in
Italy
Pope cut Byzantine
ties
Fortunes of western
Europe and
Catholicism more
closely tied together
4/8/2015
John 3:16
14
Charlemagne’s Empire
Pepin’s son-Charlemagne
A.D. 768, became
Frankish king
Pictured: Pepin and
Charlemagne
4/8/2015
John 3:16
15
Charlemagne’s Empire
Known as
Charlemagne or
Charles the Great
One of Europe’s great
monarchs
4/8/2015
John 3:16
16
Charlemagne’s Empire
In Latin, his name is
written “Carolus
Magnus”
Gave the name of
Carolingian to his
dynasty
4/8/2015
John 3:16
17
Charlemagne’s Empire
Nearly doubled the
size of his borders
– Germany, France,
northern Spain, and
most of Italy
Became known as the
Frankish Empire
Pictured:
Charlemagne’s
coronation
4/8/2015
John 3:16
18
Charlemagne Empire
Seeking to revive
learning, he
established a palace
school at Aachen
School helped
provide western
Europeans with a
common set of ideas
4/8/2015
John 3:16
19
Charlemagne (cont)
Studies based on the Bible and Latin
Scholars preserved classical learning by
copying ancient manuscripts
– Ancient manuscripts
– Roman classics
4/8/2015
John 3:16
20
A Christian Realm
Western Europeans wanted the creation of
a Christian Roman Empire
Church leaders believed Charlemagne
could create it
A.D. 800 he came to Rome to defend the
pope against the Roman nobles
In gratitude, the pope crowned him the
new Roman Emperor
4/8/2015
John 3:16
21
A Christian Realm
Charlemagne wanted the title but had
misgivings accepting the crown from the
pope—were church officials superior to
rulers?
Charlemagne accepted his duties as
emperor
Worked to strengthen empire
4/8/2015
John 3:16
22
A Christian Realm
He relied on local officials called counts to
assist him.
– They raised armies, solved local problems,
stopped feuds, protected the weak, etc
Charlemagne traveled Europe to observe
4/8/2015
John 3:16
23
Collapse of Charlemagne’s Empire
His forceful personality helped hold empire
together
A.D. 814, his family could not hold the
empire together; in A.D. 843
Charlemagne’s three grandsons agreed to
divide the empire’s lands
4/8/2015
John 3:16
24
Collapse of Charlemagne’s Empire
(cont)
Treaty of Verdun divided Carolingian lands
– Charles the Bald: France
– Louis the German: Germany
– Lothair became the Roman emperor and took
stretch of land from the North Sea southward
to Italy
4/8/2015
John 3:16
25
Invasions Increase Disunity
Muslims from North Africa
Slavs from the East
Magyars from Asia
The most threatening attacks came from
the Vikings, raiders from Scandinavia from
the north
4/8/2015
John 3:16
26
Viking Invasions
To go “a-viking” means to fight as a
warrior
Explorers skilled in sailing, trading, and
fighting who settled throughout Europe
Ships
– Light for carrying over land for quick attacks
– Shallow for navigating rivers
– Sturdy for ocean-going
4/8/2015
John 3:16
27
Viking Invasions (cont)
A.D. 800 sought riches
Left homeland which was overcrowded
Departed lands are now Norway,
Denmark, and Sweden
4/8/2015
John 3:16
28
Viking Trade
Moved along Atlantic and Mediterranean
coasts of Europe
Settle the North Atlantic islands of
Greenland and Iceland and reached North
America
Temporarily held England
Settled in present-day Ukraine and Russia
4/8/2015
John 3:16
29
Viking Culture
Worshipped many deities
Stories of gods flourished called “Eddas”
Accepted Christianity by A.D. 1100
– Began to write their letters using Roman
letters
4/8/2015
John 3:16
30
A New Europe
People of Europe suffer at the hands of
Vikings and others
Raids isolated people and weakened
central authority
Economic collapse—lack of trade, etc
Decline of monarchies resulted in nobles
and local officials taking over defense
A.D. 900s, new political and social system
brought more stability
4/8/2015
John 3:16
31
Medieval Life
Section 2
4/8/2015
John 3:16
32
Main Idea
Loyalties were maintained even in a
divided and often violent Europe
4/8/2015
John 3:16
33
Terms to Know
Feudalism
Fief
Vassal
Homage
Tournament
Chivalry
Manorialism
Serf
4/8/2015
John 3:16
34
People to Meet
Knights
Lords
Ladies
Peasants
4/8/2015
John 3:16
35
Overview of Feudalism
Weakened central government/power
Feudalism developed in western Europe
Stressed alliances between monarchs and
nobles
Land is given to nobles in exchange for
loyalty
Peasants came with the land to farm it
4/8/2015
John 3:16
36
Feudalism Relationships
The tie between
military service and
land ownership began
in A.D. 700s
4/8/2015
John 3:16
37
Feudalism Relationships
Charles Martel
fighting Muslims who
fought using cavalry
with stirrups/saddles
– Martel granted fiefs—
estates with
peasants—for income
to buy horses and
equipment
4/8/2015
John 3:16
38
Feudalism Relationships (cont)
Frankish kings later
enlarged this system
by giving fiefs to
counts and local
officials
– These nobles
assumed many
government powers
and swore loyalty to
the king
4/8/2015
John 3:16
39
Feudalism Relationships
By A.D. 900s, such
arrangements among
nobles and monarchs
emerged as feudalism
– Lords were permitted
to pass their lands on
to heirs in return for
providing knights for
the royal army
4/8/2015
John 3:16
40
Feudalism Relationships (cont)
Like a pyramid with king on top, lords in
the middle, and knights on bottom
– Lords served another lord of the next higher
rank
– Lords could also serve as vassals—a noble
pledging loyalty to more than one lord
– Conflicts could arrive if a vassal served two
lords at war with each other
4/8/2015
John 3:16
41
Feudal Obligations
Ties between lord and vassal made official
in a solemn ceremony known as “homage”
In return for a fief, vassals pledged to
perform certain duties, the most important
was military service
– Knights usually provided for 40-60 days/year
– Provided food and lodging for lord on visits
– Paid ransom if lord caught in battle
4/8/2015
John 3:16
42
Castles for Defense
Because of lack of strong central
government, warfare occurred frequently
in feudal society
– Therefore, every nobleman built a castle for
security
By A.D. 1100s castle were built of stone
with thick walls and turrets—small towers
4/8/2015
John 3:16
43
Castle for Defense
Each castle was built
on a hill or mound
surrounded by a deep
moat
4/8/2015
John 3:16
44
Castles for Defense
Castle had a square
tower called a “keep”
– Contained many
rooms
Hall
Dungeon
– Surrounding the keep
was a “bailey”
Buildings—barracks,
storerooms, workshops
and chapel
4/8/2015
John 3:16
45
Castle for Defense
Castles were built for
security and were
cold, dingy, and dark
places
4/8/2015
John 3:16
46
Life of the Nobility
Lords, ladies, and
knights made up the
nobility of the middle
ages
4/8/2015
John 3:16
47
Life of Nobility
Within his fief, a lord
had almost total
authority, collecting
rents in goods from
peasants and settling
disputes between
vassals
4/8/2015
John 3:16
48
Life of Nobility
Attempts to seize the
fief were met with
violent resistance
4/8/2015
John 3:16
49
Life of Nobility (cont)
In contrast, a lady, or
noblewoman, had few
rights
– Her primary duties lay
in bringing up children
and taking care of the
household
4/8/2015
John 3:16
50
Life of Nobility
Could be married as
early as twelve to a
man selected by her
father
Took pride in
needlework, turning
out cloth, and fine
embroidery
4/8/2015
John 3:16
51
Life of the Nobility
Women made effective medicines from
plants and herbs
Some shared the supervision of the castle
for husbands off to war
4/8/2015
John 3:16
52
Entertainment
Tournaments, mock
battles
Knights chose lady to
fight for
– Usually married to
gentleman of higher
status
4/8/2015
John 3:16
53
Entertainment
Tournaments could
be dangerous
Church looked down
on them
Large group of armed
men in one place
Winning ladies hearts
was large part of it
4/8/2015
John 3:16
54
Entertainment
Hunting
– Both men and women
learned falconry and
archery
4/8/2015
John 3:16
55
Entertainment
Dinner featured
several dishes of
game and fish
Minstrels, or singers,
might follow
4/8/2015
John 3:16
56
Becoming a Knight
Nobleman’s son
begins training for
knighthood at age of
seven
4/8/2015
John 3:16
57
Becoming a Knight
Starts as a page,
assistant to a lord
At 15, he becomes a
squire who assists
knights and studies
weapon and battle
Once proven in battle,
he is knighted
4/8/2015
John 3:16
58
Becoming a Knight
Behavior of knight
governed by code of
chivalry
–
–
–
–
–
4/8/2015
Brave in battle
Fight fairly
Keep promises
Defend the church
Treat women with
noble birth in a
courteous manner
John 3:16
59
Becoming a Knight
Chivalry became
basis of good
manners in Western
society
4/8/2015
John 3:16
60
The Manorial System
The wealth of a feudal
lord came from the
labor of the peasants
who lived on and
worked the lord’s land
– Since the Romans,
peasants had worked
for large land owners
4/8/2015
John 3:16
61
Manorialism vs Feudalism
Manorialism: Economic
Economic system
Originated fro latifundia
Lords owned land
Serfs controlled land
Property was shared
Lords headed manors
Lords protected people
4/8/2015
Feudalism: Political
Political System
Mutual obligations
Fiefs awarded to vassals
Lords minted coins and
made laws
Lords headed manors
Loyalty
Pyramid structure
John 3:16
62
The Manorial System
By the Middle Ages,
economic life across
Europe centered
around a system of
agricultural production
called “manorialism”
– Provided peasants
with food, shelter, and
protection
4/8/2015
John 3:16
63
The Manorial System
Sizes of estates varied from several
hundred to several thousand acres
– Included lord’s house, pastures, crop fields,
forests, and peasant village
Manorialism concerns economic ties
between nobles and peasants
4/8/2015
John 3:16
64
Work on a Manor
In return for the lord’s protection, peasants
provided various services to the lord
– Farming the land
– Payments for goods, e.g. when a peasant
ground grain, a portion was left to the lord
– Road and bridge repair
Warfare made trade near impossible so
manors had to produce what was needed
4/8/2015
John 3:16
65
Work on a Manor
Most peasants
farmed or herded
sheep
Some were artisans
like blacksmiths,
carpenters, millers
(grain grounding),
shoemakers, brewers,
etc.
Black cotton dress
4/8/2015
John 3:16
66
Work on a Manor
Most peasants were
“serfs”—could not
leave the manor
without permission
– Serfs were not slaves
and could not be sold
Cruck houses
– Wood, straw, mud,
manure
Cruck House
4/8/2015
John 3:16
67
Increased Production
Agricultural
improvements eased
the threat of famine
– Heavier plow
Deeper cuts
Mould-board pushed
the soil sideways
Farmers spent less time
in the field
Developed better
method of planting
4/8/2015
John 3:16
68
Increased Production
Planting rotation of
fields
– Planted fields
– Fallow fields
– Seasonal adjustments
4/8/2015
John 3:16
69
Peasant Life
Poverty and hardship
characterized peasant
life
– Famine, disease, and
warfare were constant
dangers
– Few peasants live
beyond 40
Most people rarely
bathed
Didn’t know about
germs
Toilets were buckets
emptied into rivers or
streams
– Same stream used for
cooking and drinking,
too
4/8/2015
John 3:16
70
Peasant Life
Invading knights
trampled crops and
burned villages
Dirt-floor houses, no
chimney, one or two
crude pieces of
furniture
People huddled
together for warmth
Animals inside
4/8/2015
John 3:16
71
Peasant Life (cont)
Not large variety of
food
– Few vegetables from
the garden
– Grain for porridge
– Meat was rarity
4/8/2015
John 3:16
72
Peasant Life
Relaxed Sundays
– Dancing, singing,
sports like wrestling
and archery
– Plays, pageants, and
shows by minstrels
4/8/2015
John 3:16
73
Peasant Life
Despite differences
between nobles and
serfs, they shared an
interest in the land
Medieval Europeans
believed all were
equal in the eyes of
God
4/8/2015
John 3:16
74
Peasant Life
Each person seen as
requiring duties to
perform
– Very young cleared
stones
– Many died at birth
– No school
Peasant life: “nasty,
brutish, and short”
Manor House
4/8/2015
John 3:16
75
Peasant Life
Although manorial
system lacked
freedom and
opportunity for
people, it created a
stable and secure
way of life during a
violent and uncertain
time
4/8/2015
John 3:16
76
The Medieval Church
Section 3
4/8/2015
John 3:16
77
Main Idea
The Catholic Church shaped the
development of medieval Europe
4/8/2015
John 3:16
78
Terms to Define
Sacrament
Abbot
Abbess
Cardinal
Lay
Investiture
Heresy
Excommunication
Friar
4/8/2015
John 3:16
79
Places to locate
Monte Cassino
Cluny
4/8/2015
John 3:16
80
Overview of Section
During Middle Ages, the Catholic Church
was the dominant spiritual influence in
western Europe
Church was the center of their lives
Small number of Jews, Muslims, and nonCatholic Christians
4/8/2015
John 3:16
81
The Medieval Church
Although the Church’s
primary mission was
spiritual, the decline
of Rome in the A.D.
400s led the Church
to assume many
political and social
tasks
4/8/2015
John 3:16
82
The Medieval Church
Pope: Strongest
political leader in
western Europe
The pope claimed
spiritual authority over
Christians since Peter
the Apostle, Rome’s
first bishop, was
chosen by Jesus to
lead the Church
4/8/2015
John 3:16
83
Religious Role
The Catholic Church
taught that all people
were sinners and
dependent on God’s
grace
The only way to
receive grace was to
take part in the
sacraments
4/8/2015
John 3:16
84
Religious Role
Sacraments
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
4/8/2015
Baptism
Penance
Eucharist
Confirmation
Matrimony
Anointing of sick
Holy orders
John 3:16
85
Religious Role
The church hierarchy
remained largely
unchanged during the
Middle Ages
– Parish priests oversaw
the spiritual life of the
community
– Bishops occasionally
visited parishes to
supervise
4/8/2015
John 3:16
86
Religious Role
People had limited
understanding of
church rituals
– Masses said Latin
– Many priests poorly
educated
– Few people could read
or write
4/8/2015
John 3:16
87
Religious Role
People would learn
about their faith from
paintings, sculptors,
and stain glass
windows
4/8/2015
John 3:16
88
Church Organization
Church hierarchy
remained basically
the same
People contacted
mostly through priests
The pope, bishops,
and priests lived in
the world—”in
saeculo”
4/8/2015
John 3:16
89
Church Organization
Regular clergy like
monks and nuns lived
apart from society –
”regula”
– Played an important
role in strengthening
the medieval Church
4/8/2015
John 3:16
90
Benedict’s Rule
A.D. 529, a Roman official named
Benedict founded a monastery that
became a model for other monasteries
– Monte Cassino in Italy
– Drew up list of rules
– Could not own goods, marry, and are bound
by monastic laws
– Poverty, chastity, and obedience
– Obey directives of abbot (monastery head)
4/8/2015
John 3:16
91
Monastic Life
Monks and nuns played a crucial role in
medieval intellectual and social life,
preserving ancient religious works and
classical writings
Long robes, course materials
Rule of silence
Women (nuns) lived in convents under
direction of an abbess
4/8/2015
John 3:16
92
Monastic Life
Wore simple clothes and wrapped white
cloth around face and neck called a
wimple
Spinning, weaving, and embroidering
items such as tapestries and banners
Taught needlework and use of herbs
4/8/2015
John 3:16
93
Influence of Monastics
Not completely isolated
Crucial role in medieval intellectual and
social life
Preserved ancient religious works and
classical writings
Scribes laboriously copied books by hand,
working in a small room with only a candle
and window for light
4/8/2015
John 3:16
94
Influence of Monastics (cont)
Monasteries and
convents provided
schools, hospitals,
food, and guest
houses
Taught carpentry and
weaving to peasants
Pioneered agricultural
improvement
4/8/2015
John 3:16
95
Missionary Efforts
Pope Gregory I
adopted the
Benedictine Rule to
spread Christianity in
Europe
Sent monks and
missionaries
throughout Europe
4/8/2015
John 3:16
96
Missionary Efforts
By A.D. mid-1000s,
most western
Europeans had
become Catholics
4/8/2015
John 3:16
97
Power of the Church
The medieval Catholic Church helped to
govern western Europe, meting out sever
penalties for violation of doctrine and
morals
Even rulers could face and interdict for an
entire region or country—people could not
receive the sacraments necessary for
salvation
4/8/2015
John 3:16
98
Power of the Church (cont)
The Church had feudal ties that boosted
its wealth and political power but often
undermined its spiritual vitality
– Many high Church officials were nobles who
held land from kings in return for military
service. Church officials gave land to knights
who would fight for them
Many high Church officials were nobles
who had little devotion to their spiritual
calling
4/8/2015
John 3:16
99
Power of the Church (cont)
Church officials received donations from
nobles wanting to receive salvation
Nobles would influence religion by having
relatives receive positions in the Church—
they were not prepared for such duty
4/8/2015
John 3:16
100
Church Reform
By the A.D. 900s, many devout Christians were
demanding reform, including the monastery of
Cluny in eastern France
– Cluny had won respect for there consistent pious
work and life
Other Church leaders worked to free the Church
from the control of feudal lords
– In A.D. 1059, a church council declared that the pope
would be elected by a gathering of cardinals (high
church officials) and that the pope would appoint
church officials
4/8/2015
John 3:16
101
Church Reform (cont)
Gregory VII tried to reform the Church in
A.D. 1215—condemned drunkenness,
dancing, feasting, etc.
Criticized “lay investiture”—the giving of
symbols of office, such as a ring and a
staff, by secular leaders to bishops they
had appointed
4/8/2015
John 3:16
102
Fighting Heresy
Heretics were threatened with excommunication,
or expulsion from the church
In order to seek out and punish people
suspected of heresy, the Church set up a court
in A.D. 1232 known as the “Inquisition”
– Often tortured people to obtain confession
– Punishment ranged from imprisonment to execution
– Punishments were seen as needing to save the souls
of heretics
4/8/2015
John 3:16
103
Friars Inspire Reform
Followed monastic rules but did not isolate
themselves from the Christian community
– Live in towns and preached Christianity
– Best known friars were the Franciscans and
Dominicans
Francis of Assisi founded the Franciscan
friars, who sought to follow the simple life
of Jesus and had respect for nature
4/8/2015
John 3:16
104
Friars Inspire Reform (cont)
Spanish priest named Dominic organized
the Dominican friars in A.D. 1215
– Lived a life of simplicity, poverty, and service
4/8/2015
John 3:16
105
The Jews
As the Church’s power increased in
medieval Europe, the position of the Jews
worsened
– Many became artisans, landowners, etc, and
had been valued by Christian neighbors
– But by 1000s, people saw Jews as outsiders
– Blamed the Jews for Jesus’ death
– Anti-Semitism, hatred of the Jews, came from
those who blamed the Jews for the death of
Jesus
4/8/2015
John 3:16
106
The Jews (cont)
Rulers in England, France, and certain
parts of central Europe expelled their
Jewish subjects, many of whom settled in
eastern Europe
Many settled in Poland where they were
accepted
4/8/2015
John 3:16
107
Rise of European Monarchy
Section 4
4/8/2015
John 3:16
108
Main Idea
Medieval European monarchs made great
achievements
4/8/2015
John 3:16
109
Terms to Define
Common Law
Grand jury
Petit jury
Middle class
4/8/2015
John 3:16
110
People to Meet
Alfred the Great
William the Conqueror
Henry II
Thomas a Becket
Eleanor of Aquitaine
Philip Augustus
Henry IV
4/8/2015
John 3:16
111
Places to Locate
England
France
Germany
4/8/2015
John 3:16
112
Overview
After Rome, central power had declined
Charlemagne was the only ruler seen as a
true monarch (late A.D. 700s)
– Kings were kings in name only
– Nobles held the power
In 1100s, many European monarchs
began to build strong states
4/8/2015
John 3:16
113
Rise of European Monarchy
England
4/8/2015
John 3:16
114
England
After Romans
abandoned Britain in
the A.D. 400s,
Germanic Angles,
Saxons, and Jutes
took over much of
Britain from the native
Celts and set up
several kingdoms
4/8/2015
John 3:16
115
England
King Alfred from
Wessex, known as
Alfred the Great,
united the AngloSaxon kingdoms and
defeated the Danes in
A.D. 886. United
kingdom known as
“Angleland”, or
England
4/8/2015
John 3:16
116
The Anglo-Saxons
Like Charlemagne,
Alfred interested in
revival of learning
– Founded schools and
hired scholars to
translate books from
Latin to Anglo-Saxon
– Had scholars write
history of England,
known as the “AngloSaxon Chronicle”
4/8/2015
John 3:16
117
The Anglo-Saxons
Weak kings followed Alfred
When the last Anglo-Saxon king died,
Edward the confessor, three rivals claimed
the throne
4/8/2015
John 3:16
118
The Norman Conquest
William, the Duke of
Normandy (France)
defeated the last
Anglo-Saxon king at
the Battle of Hastings
(England) in A.D.
1066
William the Conqueror
4/8/2015
John 3:16
119
The Norman Conquest
William was vassal to
the king of France
– Strong feudal
organization in
northern France
Battle of Hastings
won William the
English throne and
the name, William the
Conqueror
4/8/2015
John 3:16
120
The Norman Conquest
To keep loyalty of
Norman vassals,
William gave land to
church leaders and
nobles
4/8/2015
John 3:16
121
The Norman Conquest
William: landowners must swear loyalty
Set up council of nobles to advise him on
government matters
Sheriffs named to collect taxes
Carried out the first census to determine
who pays taxes and how much
– Every person, manor, and farm animal
became an entry in the “Domesday Book”
4/8/2015
John 3:16
122
Royal Power
William’s son Henry I, ruled from A.D.
1100-A.D. 1135
– Strengthened English monarchy
Exchequer (royal finances)
Royal courts
4/8/2015
John 3:16
123
Royal Power
England’s population remained largely
Anglo-Saxon
Over the next 300 years, Norman French
and Anglo-Saxon ways blended to form a
new English culture
William’s successors, including Henry II,
further strengthened the monarchy and
instituted a legal system of common law
and juries
4/8/2015
John 3:16
124
Royal Power
Common law, as established by Henry II,
used traveling judges to apply the law
equally throughout the land
Judges met with a “grand jury” that
submitted names of suspects
A “petit jury” was developed to establish
the guilt or innocence of the accused
4/8/2015
John 3:16
125
Royal Power
Henry strengthened the monarchy (royal
government)
He strengthened many royal
administrative and political offices
– Continued the “exchequer”
Named after a checkered cloth where on a round
table where tax collectors counted money
“Exchequer” named from French word for
chessboard
4/8/2015
John 3:16
126
Royal Power
Strengthened the courts
– Tried more cases in royal courts
– Took property cases from local courts to royal
courts
– Overall strategy was to expand the power of
the courts at the royal level and bring more
money into the king’s coffers
– Common law took over from local law
Tried to take more control of church
4/8/2015
John 3:16
127
The Magna Carta
Henry II, trying to impose royal control
over the church, sought to try clergy in the
royal courts. Thomas a Becket,
Archbishop of Canterbury, claimed only
church courts could try clerics
Compromise failed and the king became
vocal about his dislike for Becket asking,
“who will rid me of this priest?”
4/8/2015
John 3:16
128
The Magna Carta
Four knights take the king seriously and
murder Becket in the cathedral—the king
had not desired this
Faced with public outrage at Becket’s
death, Henry II was forced to permit the
right of appeal from English church courts
to the papal court
4/8/2015
John 3:16
129
The Magna Carta
Henry II ruled western France and
England
His wife, “Eleanor of Aquitaine” continued
to influenced royal policies through their
sons, Richard I (the lionhearted) and John
4/8/2015
John 3:16
130
The Magna Carta
English nobles became alarmed by the growth
of the king’s power
Nobles rose in rebellion during the reign of
Henry’s son, King John
Nobles saw their feudal rights fading
A group of nobles at Runnymede in A.D. 1215
forced John to sign the Magna Carta or Great
Charter
– The Magna Carta is one of the most important
document in the history of representative government
4/8/2015
John 3:16
131
The Magna Carta
Magna Carta forced limiting government power
It placed clear limits on royal power
– Prevented the king from collecting taxes without the
consent of the great council
– Assured freemen the right of trial by jury
The nobles intended the Magna Carta to protect
their feudal rights
Over time, it guaranteed the rights of all English
people
4/8/2015
John 3:16
132
The Magna Carta
The Magna Carta was a feudal document
The relationship between kings and
vassals needs to be based on mutual
rights and obligations
Underscored the concept the monarch
needs to be limited rather than absolute
How did this concept carry over to the
United States in developing our
Constitution?
4/8/2015
John 3:16
133
The Magna Carta
So, how did the Magna Carta change the
balance of power in government?
– It placed clear limits on royal power and
bound the king to law. Therefore, it
guaranteed the rights of the English people.
For example, the king could no longer collect
taxes without consent of the people’s
representatives, and it assured all freemen
the right of trial by jury
4/8/2015
John 3:16
134
Rise of Parliament
Population increase encouraged growth of
towns
New social class emerging—middle class
– Middle class did not fit into the medieval
social order of nobles, clergy, and peasants
– Income came from business and trade, not
from the land
– Played an increasingly important role in
government
4/8/2015
John 3:16
135
Rise of Parliament
Recognizing the town’s growing power,
Henry III added knights and burgesses to
the Parliament that advised the king
As England’s government became more
representative, Henry’s son Edward
encouraged members of Parliament to
advise him, submit petitions, and meet
frequently
4/8/2015
John 3:16
136
Rise of Parliament
A.D. 1400 Parliament divided into two
houses
– Nobles and clergy met in House of Lords
– Knights and burgesses met as the House of
Commons
4/8/2015
John 3:16
137
France
France developed strong central
monarchy
Type of government in France that
developed was not like the representative
government of England
4/8/2015
John 3:16
138
Beginnings of Central Government
After Charlemagne, Frankish land
disintegrated into separate lands governed
by feudal lords
They defended their lands as independent
rulers
In A.D. 987 a noble named Hugh Capet
seized the French throne from the weak
Carolingian king
4/8/2015
John 3:16
139
Beginnings of Central Government
The Capetian (kuh*PEE*shun) dynasty
lasted more than three centuries,
strengthening the power of feudal lords
– Eldest sons inherited the throne
Towns grew like in England
Louis VI became king in A.D. 1108
awarding clergy positions from towns in
his government and freed towns of
obligations to feudal lords. Got town
loyalty for this
4/8/2015
John 3:16
140
Strengthening the Monarchy
Philip II (Philip Augustus) doubled the area
of his domain and further weakened the
power of feudal lords
Barely 15 when made king
Reigned for 43 years
Double the area of his domain
Appointed local officials loyal to him and
created a semi-permanent royal army
thereby weakening feudal lords
4/8/2015
John 3:16
141
A Saintly Ruler
Philip’s grandson became King Louis IX in
A.D. 1226
Decreed royal courts had dominance over
feudal courts and only the king could mint
coins
Very religious and chivalrous
4/8/2015
John 3:16
142
Signs of a Strong Monarchy
Louis IX’s grandson, Philip IV, thought to
be so handsome he was nicknamed
“Philip the Fair”
Defeated both England and Flanders in
war, raising funds by taxing clergy
4/8/2015
John 3:16
143
Rise of European Monarchy
The Holy Roman Empire
4/8/2015
John 3:16
144
Overview
Monarchs in France and England building
strong central governments
German rulers remained weak
– Disputes with the pope
– Disputes with powerful German nobles
4/8/2015
John 3:16
145
Emperor of the Romans
A.D. 1000 to A.D. 1100s German kings
posed most threat to the pope
King Otto I or “Otto the Great” tried to
restore Charlemagne’s empire
Pope John XII sought Otto’s help against
Roman nobles who opposed the pope
In return, the pope crowned Otto Holy
Roman emperor
4/8/2015
John 3:16
146
Problems of the Holy Roman
Empire
Otto and his successors claimed the right
to intervene in the election of popes and
Otto himself appointed and deposed
several popes
The pope claimed the right to anoint and
depose kings
Dispute led to centuries of dispute
between the Holy Roman emperors and
Roman Catholic Church
4/8/2015
John 3:16
147
Problems of the Holy Roman
Empire (cont)
Powerful German lords also prevented the
Holy Roman emperors from building a
strong unified state
4/8/2015
John 3:16
148
Emperor and Pope Collide
During rule of Henry IV, a major quarrel
broke out with Pope Gregory VII
– The Pope condemned lay investiture hoping
to free the Church from secular control
– The bishops supported the king who was
trying to reduce the influence of the feudal
lords
The Pope proclaimed Henry deposed and
urged German nobles to elect another
ruler
4/8/2015
John 3:16
149
Emperor and Pope Collide
Henry pleaded for mercy for three days
outside in Winter standing before the gate
of the Pope’s castle
Gregory pardoned Henry, but problems
continued
4/8/2015
John 3:16
150
Emperor and Pope Collide
Church officials and representatives of the Holy
Roman empire compromise
The agreement known as the Concordant of
Worms
– Allowed the emperor to name bishops and grant them
land
– Gave the pope the right to reject unworthy candidates
Popes and monarchs continued to struggle for
power against each other leading to many
changes
4/8/2015
John 3:16
151