Getting Started with Support

download report

Transcript Getting Started with Support

Course ILT
Memory systems
Unit objectives
 Describe the function of memory and
differentiate between different types of
memory chips
 Differentiate between different memory
packages
 Test memory with a memory testing
application and troubleshoot memory
problems
Course ILT
Topic A
 Topic A: Memory
 Topic B: Memory packaging
 Topic C: Memory troubleshooting
Course ILT
Memory
 RAM = Random Access Memory
 Working area for data during
processing
 Having sufficient RAM is critical
– Performance
– Software support
 Quality RAM is critical
Course ILT
Measurement units




Bit
Nibble = 4 bits
Byte = 8 bits
Word = based on CPU
– Pentium 4: 32-bit processor : 32 bit word
Course ILT
Larger units





Byte (B) = 8 bits
Kilobyte (KB) = 1024 bytes
Megabyte (MB) = 1024 KB = 1,048,576 bytes
Gigabyte (GB) = 1024 MB = 1,073,741,824 bytes
Terabyte (TB) = 1024 GB or 1,099,511,627,776
bytes
Memory types
Course ILT
 Classify memory as:
– Volatile vs. non-volatile
– Static vs. dynamic
– Asynchronous vs. synchronous
Course ILT
Volatile vs. non-volatile memory
RAM
Volatile
Random access memory
CMOS
Volatile
Complementary metal oxide
semiconductor
ROM
PROM
Non-volatile
Non-volatile
Read only memory
EPROM
Non-volatile
Erasable programmable read
only memory
EEPROM
Non-volatile
Electronically erasable
programmable read only
memory
Flash
Non-volatile
Programmable read only
memory
Dynamic vs. static memory
Course ILT
 Dynamic (DRAM)
– Must be continually refreshed
– Inexpensive
– Small
 Static (SRAM)
–
–
–
–
Refreshing not required
More expensive
Larger
Faster
Asynchronous and synchronous
Course ILT
 Asynchronous
– Not synchronized to system clock
– Consistent time to access and read data
 Synchronous
– Synchronized to system clock
– Access data and return in one or more
clock cycles
 SDRAM faster than ADRAM
Course ILT
Memory access types
DRAM
Dynamic RAM
Older technology
FPM
Fast Page Mode
Improved over DRAM
VRAM
Video RAM
Dual port, optimized for
video
EDO
Extended Data Out
Improved over FPM
BEDO
Burst Extended Data Out
Adds pipelining to EDO
ADRAM
Asynchronous DRAM
Not synchronized to the
system clock
SDRAM
Synchronous DRAM
Interleaving permits
overlapped requests
DRDRAM
Direct Rambus DRAM
16-bit memory bus and two
transfers per clock cycle
DDR
Double Data Rate
Double transfer rate of
SDRAM with two transfers
per clock cycle
DDR2
Double Data Rate
64 bits per transfer to double
DDR performance
Course ILT
Access time
 Latency
 Memory speed
– Nanoseconds vs. megahertz
 Overall speed
– Doesn’t include latency
– Doesn’t consider bus speed
 Bandwidth
Course ILT
Speed ratings
Memory type
Technology
Bandwidth
Speed
PC100
SDRAM
0.8 GB/second
100 MHz
PC133
SDRAM
1 GB/sec.
133 MHz
PC1600
DDR
1.6 GB/sec.
100 MHz
PC2100
DDR
2.1 GB/sec.
133 MHz
PC2700
DDR
2.7 GB/sec.
166 MHz
PC3200
DDR
3.2 GB/sec.
200 MHz
PC2-3200
DDR2
3.2 GB/sec.
200 MHz
PC2-4200
DDR2
4.2 GB/sec.
266 MHz
PC2-5300
DDR2
5.3 GB/sec.
333 MHz
PC2-6400
DDR2
6.4 GB/sec.
400 MHz
Course ILT
Activity A-1
Identifying memory characteristics
Course ILT
Topic B
 Topic A: Memory
 Topic B: Memory packaging
 Topic C: Memory troubleshooting
Course ILT
Packaging
 Individual chips
 Package
–
–
–
–
Memory chips
Connecting wires
Support chips
Pins or edge contacts
Course ILT
Individual chips
Course ILT
SIMM
Course ILT
Package types
Package
Pins
Used in
SIMM
30
386-class desktops, early Macintosh computers
SIMM
72
486 and early Pentium desktops
DIMM
100
Printers
DIMM
168
Pentium and Athlon systems
DIMM
184
DDR SDRAM in desktops
DIMM
240
DDR2 SDRAM in desktops
MICRODIMM
144
Sub-notebook computers
SODIMM
144
Laptop and notebook computers
SODIMM
200
DDR memory for laptops and notebooks
SODIMM
200
DDR2 memory for laptops and notebooks
Course ILT
Memory error recovery




Parity—detects an error
ECC—detects and corrects an error
Desktop memory—no parity or ECC
Server memory—often includes parity
or ECC
Course ILT
Parity
8 chips,
no parity
9 chips,
supports
parity
Course ILT
Activity B-1
Comparing RAM packaging
Course ILT
Topic C
 Topic A: Memory
 Topic B: Memory packaging
 Topic C: Memory troubleshooting
Course ILT
Task Manager
 Windows GUI utility
 Provides information on currently
running processes
 Version available on all Windows
operating systems
– Windows 9x/Me Program List
– Windows NT/2000/XP Task Manager
Course ILT
Performance tab indicators









CPU Usage
CPU Usage History
PF Usage
Page File Usage History
Totals
Physical Memory (K)
Commit Charge (K)
Kernel Memory (K)
Summary data
Course ILT
The Performance tab
Course ILT
Activity C-1
Monitoring memory usage
Course ILT
Activity C-2
Adjusting the Windows page file size
Course ILT
Memory symptoms
 201 BIOS error code at boot time
 Parity error message
 Computer randomly freezes or
crashes
 Wrong amount of memory reported by
the BIOS
 Windows reports General Protection
Fault, Page Fault, or Exception errors
 Random crashes, corrupted data,
strange application behavior
Course ILT
Activity C-3
Troubleshooting memory
Course ILT
Unit summary
 Described the function of memory and
differentiated between different types
of memory chips
 Differentiated between different
memory packages
 Tested memory with a memory testing
application and resolved memory
problems