Antibacterial Resistance

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Transcript Antibacterial Resistance

Antibacterial Resistance
What is it?
When people go to the doctor's office,
they expect to be cured. They don't
like to be told, "Go home, drink lots of
fluids and rest, and you will get
better."
But it’s not what the Doctor wants…
They want a more proactive
approach. Often, doctors prescribe
antibiotics just to make their patients
happy, even if the antibiotics cannot
treat the illness at hand.
What is an Antibiotic?
An Antibiotic is…
Substances that destroy or inhibit the
growth of microorganisms, particularly
disease-causing bacteria.
Where do Antibiotics come from?
Naturally produced by bacteria and fungi
Erythromycin – produced by bacteria
Penicillin – produced by fungi
• Can be also artificially produced in the
laboratory
Cipro – completely synthetic
How do they work?
Prevent proper formation of the bacterial cell wall
Examples are penicillin,
Disrupt protein synthesis or cell metabolism
Examples are erythromycin,
Interfere with DNA synthesis
Example is Cipro
Resistance is an issue…
As a result, antibiotics become more
prevalent, the microbes they attack
are more likely to develop resistance,
and over time the antibiotics become
ineffective.
Antibiotic Resistance is Acquired
through…
Natural mutation and then :
Exchange of genes
through:
Conjugation
Transduction
Transformation
Conjugation
Bacteria connect to
each other using a
thread-like structure
called a pilus. A
section of DNA is
transferred from one
bacterium to the
other.
Transduction
A virus can pass good
bacteria DNA from one host
bacteria to the next.
DNA from dead bacteria is taken in
into living bacteria
As bacteria reproduce and
exchange DNA….
a gene for antibiotic resistance which
had evolved via natural selection
may be shared.
Evolutionary stress such as exposure
to antibiotics then selects for the
antibiotic resistant trait.
Superbugs!
If a bacterium carries several
resistance genes, it is called multiresistant or, informally, a superbug
or super bacterium.
It’s not just human antibiotics…
prevalence of antibiotic resistant
bacteria is a result of antibiotic use
both within medicine and veterinary
medicine.
More Antibiotics…
The greater the
duration of exposure
the greater the risk of
the development of
resistance irrespective
of the severity of the
need for antibiotics
Task : Create a foldable using the following terms
(You may create any foldable you would like. I have
suggestions if you need help.)
Bacteria
Antibiotic
Resistance
Antibiotic Resistance
Superbug / Super
bacteria
Multiresistant
Heritable
Natural selection
Evolution
YOU MUST INCLUDE
ILLUSTRATIONS FOR
YOUR TERMS!
MUST BE IN COLOR!