Transcript Antibacterial Resistance
Antibacterial Resistance What is it? When people go to the doctor's office, they expect to be cured. They don't like to be told, "Go home, drink lots of fluids and rest, and you will get better." But it’s not what the Doctor wants… They want a more proactive approach. Often, doctors prescribe antibiotics just to make their patients happy, even if the antibiotics cannot treat the illness at hand. What is an Antibiotic? An Antibiotic is… Substances that destroy or inhibit the growth of microorganisms, particularly disease-causing bacteria. Where do Antibiotics come from? Naturally produced by bacteria and fungi Erythromycin – produced by bacteria Penicillin – produced by fungi • Can be also artificially produced in the laboratory Cipro – completely synthetic How do they work? Prevent proper formation of the bacterial cell wall Examples are penicillin, Disrupt protein synthesis or cell metabolism Examples are erythromycin, Interfere with DNA synthesis Example is Cipro Resistance is an issue… As a result, antibiotics become more prevalent, the microbes they attack are more likely to develop resistance, and over time the antibiotics become ineffective. Antibiotic Resistance is Acquired through… Natural mutation and then : Exchange of genes through: Conjugation Transduction Transformation Conjugation Bacteria connect to each other using a thread-like structure called a pilus. A section of DNA is transferred from one bacterium to the other. Transduction A virus can pass good bacteria DNA from one host bacteria to the next. DNA from dead bacteria is taken in into living bacteria As bacteria reproduce and exchange DNA…. a gene for antibiotic resistance which had evolved via natural selection may be shared. Evolutionary stress such as exposure to antibiotics then selects for the antibiotic resistant trait. Superbugs! If a bacterium carries several resistance genes, it is called multiresistant or, informally, a superbug or super bacterium. It’s not just human antibiotics… prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria is a result of antibiotic use both within medicine and veterinary medicine. More Antibiotics… The greater the duration of exposure the greater the risk of the development of resistance irrespective of the severity of the need for antibiotics Task : Create a foldable using the following terms (You may create any foldable you would like. I have suggestions if you need help.) Bacteria Antibiotic Resistance Antibiotic Resistance Superbug / Super bacteria Multiresistant Heritable Natural selection Evolution YOU MUST INCLUDE ILLUSTRATIONS FOR YOUR TERMS! MUST BE IN COLOR!