Survival of Selected Bacteria Causing Traveler`s Diarrhea in

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Transcript Survival of Selected Bacteria Causing Traveler`s Diarrhea in

Survival of Selected Bacteria
Causing Traveler’s Diarrhea in
Common Water and Beverages
Presented By:
Majed Al-Mashjary
Ammar Basabrain
Mohammad Raml
Majed Al-Shaer
Supervised By:
Dr. Abdulaziz Bamarouf
Outlines
• Introduction about Traveler’s Diarrhea
• Aims of this Project
• Materials & Methods
• Results
• Discussion
• Conclusions
What is Traveler’s Diarrhea?
• Traveler’s diarrhea is a syndrome
characterized by a two time or greater
increase in the frequency of unformed
bowel movements
• Commonly associated symptoms include
abdominal cramps, nausea, urgency,
fever, and malaise
• Cases of Traveler diarrhea usually
begin by surprise (sudden onset ) and
occur during travel or soon after
returning home and are mainly selflimited condition
Traveler’s Diarrhea Can Cause More
than a Stomachache!
Common Signs and Symptoms
Upset stomach
Vomiting
Fever
Diarrhea
Dehydration
Don’t Count on these to Test for Food
Safety!
Sight
Smell
Taste
Who is at risk?
• Our immune system helps in fighting
Infections.
• But the immune systems of very young
children, pregnant women, the elderly,
and chronically ill people are at greatest
risk to develop diarrheal infections
Infants and young children, in
particular, produce less acid in
their stomachs, making it easier
for them to get sick
For pregnant women, the fetus
is at risk because it does not
have a fully developed immune
system
For elderly individuals, poor
nutrition, lack of protein in the
diet, and poor blood circulation
may result in a weakened
immune system
Those who are
immunocompromised, such as
diabetics, cancer patients, AIDS
patients, and people on
antibiotics are at greater risk
Etiological Agents of Traveler’s
Diarrhea
•
Bacterial causes
•
Parasitic causes
•
Viral causes
Bacterial Causes
• The majority of cases of traveler’s
diarrhea are caused by enteric bacterial
pathogens, which are most likely
acquired by ingesting contaminated food
or water
Salmonella
• S. typhi which cause
Typhoid fever.
• Typhoid fever is an
important cause of
morbidity in many
regions of the world, with an estimated
12 to 33 million cases occurring yearly
Shigella
• The etiological agent of Shigellosis is a
highly contagious and severe
inflammatory diarrhea disease
• Sh. flexneri is the predominant species
responsible for endemic disease
• Each year there are about 160 million
cases of shigellosis resulting in more
than one million deaths
Other Bacterial Etiological Agents
Pathogenic Escherichia coli
Campylobacter spp.
Vibrio spp.
Aeromonas spp
Bacterial Food Poisoning
• Bacterial food poisoning may in some
circumstances be an important cause of
diarrhea that typically occur in outbreaks
• Staphylococcus aureus
• Bacillus cereus
• Clostridium perfringens
Distribution of Traveler’s Diarrhea in
the World
• In general, countries with higher standard of
hygiene have lower risk for traveler’s
diarrhea
WWW.CDC.GOV
Water and Beverages Precautions
• Water
• Many pathogens causing traveler’s
diarrhea have proved their ability to
cause disease through tap water.
• Tap water in many developing countries
is often hazardous, particularly in rural
areas or after rainfall
• Ingestion of pathogens may occur by
swallowing water while showering or by
using tap water for brushing teeth
• Ice cubes is one way of ingestion of
untreated tap water specially with a
pathogen of a low infectious dose such
as Shigella spp
• Finally, swimming in water that is
contaminated by sewage should be
avoided
• Non-carbonated bottled water
• Although non-carbonated bottled water
is often used as an alternative, it is only
as safe as the source from which it was
taken
• The viability of pathogens can be
maintained in non-carbonated bottled
water; in some cases, this vehicle has
been a contributor to epidemics of
cholera and typhoid fever
• Tea and coffee
• Tea and coffee are safe if consumed
hot, whereas ice tea or coffee is not
safe except if prepared commercially
and bottled
• Carbonated beverages
• Carbonated beverages have the
advantage that they are bactericidal
• Carbonation result in an acid pH that
will effectively kill bacteria over a
period of time
• Commercially bottled carbonated
beverages are highly recommended as
a fluid source for travelers
• Unpasteurized milk
• Unpasteurized milk and milk products
are to be avoided entirely, including ice
cream and small quantities of milk in
tea or coffee
• Finally , travelers have to be note that
some beverage consumed in great
quantity can contribute to diarrhea either
through the action of caffeine or the
effect of high sugar like fructose
• Diet drinks containing aspartame
(artificial sugar) may also produce
diarrhea
Aims of This Project
1) To determine the survival of common
bacterial pathogens causing traveler’s
diarrhea in:
 Water
 Carbonated drinks
 Fruit-based carbonated drinks
 Energy drinks
 Fresh juices
2) To measure the pH of all water and
beverages used in this study
Materials & Methods
• Bacterial Source:
Salmonella typhi
Shigella flexneri
clinical isolates from culture collection
of microbiology laboratory in the Faculty
of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University
• Agar Media
Nutrient Agar (Oxoid, UK)
Drinks Ingredients
1) Carbonated Drinks:
• Pepsi
• Diet Pepsi
Ingredients:
• Carbonated water
• phosphoric acid
• Sugar (aspartame in diet)
• natural cola flavored
• caffeine
2)Carbonated Flavored Drinks:
• 7up
• Diet 7up
Ingredient:
• Carbonated water
• citric acid
• natural citrus flavored
• Sugar (aspartame in diet)
• Na citrate
• Na benzoate
3) Energy Drinks:
• Power horse
• Diet Power horse
• Bison
• Red Bull
Ingredients:
• Carbonated water
• citric acid
• Sugar (aspartame in diet)
• caffeine
• Na citrate
• Vitamins
4) Water:
• Tap water
• Bottle water
• Evian water
• Volvic Flavored water
Ingredients:
• Cations
• Anions
• * For volvic additional
• Citric acid
• Natural flavor
5) Fresh Juices:
• Fresh lemon juice without sugar
• Fresh lemon juice with sugar
• Fresh orange juice without sugar
• Fresh orange juice with sugar
• pH measurement:
• pH of all water and beverages were
measured using standard pH meter
• Procedure
Determination of the survival of
Salmonella and Shigella in different
water and beverages drinks
1- For each bacterium, 14 separate sterile
tubes were labeled with each water and
beverages drinks
2- Five (5) ml of each water and
beverages drinks were added to each
tube
3- One McFarland standard of each
bacterial suspension was prepared
using sterile physiological saline
4- Then 100 µl of bacterial suspensions
were added to each of the labeled tubes
containing water and beverages drinks
5- All bacterial/drink mixtures were mixed
well and left to stand for 30 minutes at
room temperature
6- Then fixed amount from each mixtures
were cultured in separate Nutrient agar
medium by streaking on agar plates to
grade bacterial survival
7- Then all agar plates were incubated for
24 hours at 37° C aerobically
8- The remaining bacterial/drink mixture
(from step 5) were re-incubated for
further 24 hours and then cultured
again
9- All plates were examined for bacterial
survival by interpretation of the results
using streaking in agar plate’s method
as follow:
0 = no growth
+1= growth only in
primary streak
+2 = growth in the first
and second streak.
+3 = growth in the
first, second and third
streak
+4 = growth in the first,
second, third and
fourth streak
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Survival of S. typhi in
Water & Beverages
4
Growth in 30 min
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Growth in 24 hr.
2
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Survival of Sh. flexneri in
Water & Beverages
4
Growth in 30 min
3
2
1
0
Growth in 24 hr.
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pH Measurement of Water &
Beverages
9
8.5
8
7.5
7
6.5
6
5.5
5
4.5
4
3.5
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2.5
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1.5
1
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0
pH
Discussion
•The main aims of this project were to
determine the survival of S. typhi and Sh.
flexneri in different water and beverages
and to measure pH of all drinks
•As results indicate that some water and
beverages were not bacteria friendly and
bacteria die after either 30 min or 24
hours
The bad side of soft drinks
1 - The high sugar content and low dietary
value which is propriety of junk drink
2- Their affect on dental erosion
3- Their caffeine content and aspartame
which affects the body
The antibacterial killing of lemon juice as a
natural drink is better than consuming soft
drinks which have bad effect
Conclusion
Extensive consumption of one or other of
these drinks may prevent illness
Additional clinical and epidemiological
studies are needed to further define the
safety and suitability of drinks for
consumption by foreign travelers.
Acknowledgement
• We thank allah for guiding us to the
right path.
• We thank our supervisor for supporting
us & being beside us till the very last
minute.
Dr. Abdullaziz Bamarouf
• Also we thank our family for their
patience & supporting us & for being
there for us.