NUTRITION

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Transcript NUTRITION

Avian Nutrition
NUTRITION
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When it comes to avian diet, there is a huge
controversy. Avian vets, breeders, pet shop
professionals, bird guardians, researchers,
rescuers, etc all have their own opinion as to
what constitutes the perfect diet and each of
them makes claims to it.
But the sad truth is that none of them is correct
because nobody knows what most birds’
nutritional needs are.
Nutrition
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HEALTHY BIRDS EAT HEALTHY
DIETS
THERE IS NO SUCH THING AS A
PACKAGED ‘COMPLETE DIET’
SPECIES EVOLVE TO THRIVE ON
FOOD AVAILABLE IN THEIR
NATURAL HABITAT
BIRDS DO NOT CHOOSE TO EAT
WHAT IS GOOD FOR THEM
Flock/Bird Nutrition Considerations
Management
Environment
Assessment
Ingredients
-Composition
-Variability
Bird
Bird
Characteristics
Nutrition
Nutrients
-Availability
Food
Clients
Requirements
Feed Manufacturing
-Quality
Diet Formulation
Nutrients
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Protein (Amino Acids)
Fats
Minerals
Vitamins
Water*
Water
Fresh, plain water with no additives should be
provided at all times
 If bottled water is used, spring or drinking
water, not distilled water, which lacks necessary
salts and minerals (iodane), should be chosen
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NUTRITION
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In the wild, most
parrots eat very
low-fat, low-protein
diets, and are
extremely well
adapted to such diets.
Minerals
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Macro or Major (concentration -%)
Calcium - bone; egg shell
 Phosphorus
 Sodium, potassium, chloride
 Magnesium, sulfur
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Trace minerals
Copper, iron, manganese, selenium, iodine
Vitamins
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Vitamin D (Vitamin D3 activity)
Some synthesis of:
Vitamin C
 Choline
 Niacin
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Nutrient Adequacy
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Requirement
Deficiency
Excess
Toxicity
Good Foods
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Vegetables 10-20%.
Especially vegetables high
in Vitamin A, such as
broccoli, red chard, red
kale, carrots, sweet
potatoes, and garnet yams.
Hot chiles, which are high
in Vitamin C, are also very
good.
Seeds are most notably
low in vitamin A and
protein, and high in fat
More Good Foods
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Fresh fruits in moderation
High quality natural (preferably organic)
pellets
Brown rice
Clean water — change it at least twice a day;
if it’s too dirty for you to drink, change it.
Treats (one or two almonds in the shell per
day; unsalted, unbuttered, hot air-popped
popcorn once in a while; small pieces of
whole-grain bread)
Commercial Foods
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are three concepts to understand
regarding the ideal diet in pet birds
There is no “generic” parrot and each species has its
own, different requirements
 The requirements are not well known for any species
of parrot
 The pelleted diets available today are based on
dietary requirements of chickens and cockatiels
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Diet Labeling
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Product name and purpose
Feeding directions
Ingredients (in order of magnitude of use)
Guaranteed Analyses
Protein and Fat (min)
 Fiber and Moisture (max)
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www.mazuri.com
ZuPreem
Foods to Avoid
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Parrots are junk food
junkies. The worse it
is for them, the better
they seem to like it.
We recommend that
you do NOT feed your
bird the following:
Avoid
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Animal fats, animal protein, and
fried foods (French fries)
Commercial seed mixes
(fattening); a few sunflower and
safflower seeds occasionally are
okay.
Salty foods
Onions and garlic
Nuts (other than almonds) for
parrots other than macaws (who
need nuts in their diet)
CACA — caffeine, alcohol,
chocolate, avocado
Nutritional Disorders
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Iron storage disease
Vitamin A deficiency
Vitamin D
deficiency/toxicity
Goiter (enlarged thyroid
gland.
Gout (metabolic arthritis) is
a disease created by a
buildup of uric acid
Iron Storage Disease
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Hemosiderosis (excess iron in tissues)
Hemochromatosis ( excess iron causing toxicity)
Primary - genetic predisposition
Secondary high dietary level (water?)
 chronic stress
 fasting/refeeding
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Vitamin A Deficiency
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Unsupplemented seed
diets
Symptoms
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swollen foot pads
(bumblefoot)
feather picking and dry
skin
susceptibility to
respiratory infections
submandibular swelling
Vitamin D
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Deficiency
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Insufficent diet or
sunlight (UVB) exposure
Metabolic disruption
Deficiency symptoms
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bone; egg shell
deformations
bones; beak rubbery
Vitamin D
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Toxicity
Diet excess
 Supplements in addition to diet supplement
 Species differences (macaws sensitive)
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Toxicity symptoms
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soft tissue calcification-kidneys
Other species
Research first. What do they eat in
the wild??
Force feeding