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Chapter12
Nutritional Guidelines
©2012 Cengage Learning.
All Rights Reserved.
Nutrition
• Nutrition
– Is the study of food and how it is used by the
body
– It includes the start-to-finish processes of
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Eating
Digestion of food
Transportation of nutrients
Absorption of nutrients into cells
Excretion of unused matter
©2012 Cengage Learning.
All Rights Reserved.
Nutrients
• Proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins,
minerals, and water are the basic nutrients
in food.
• Nutrients serve three main functions:
– Providing energy
– Supplying materials for building and
maintaining healthy cells
– Regulating body processes
©2012 Cengage Learning.
All Rights Reserved.
Nutrients
(continued)
• All persons throughout their life span
require the same nutrients—only the
amounts that are needed change.
©2012 Cengage Learning.
All Rights Reserved.
Nutrition Guidelines
• Each of these tools emphasizes the
importance of being physically active and
maintaining a healthy weight.
• Helping children develop healthy eating
and activity habits can have lifetime
benefits.
©2012 Cengage Learning.
All Rights Reserved.
Nutrition Guidelines
• Are designed to serve one of two
purposes:
– To ensure adequate nutrient intake
– To encourage healthy lifestyle practices
©2012 Cengage Learning.
All Rights Reserved.
Nutrition Guidelines
• Nutrient guidelines that are designed to
ensure adequate nutrient intake include:
– Daily Reference Intakes (DRIs)
– Food Guide Pyramid
©2012 Cengage Learning.
All Rights Reserved.
Daily Reference Intakes (RDIs)
• Provide information about:
– Recommended nutrient intake by age
– Goals for nutrients for which a limit has been
determined
– The highest level of a nutrient that is unlikely to cause
a health risk
• This information is used to set national nutrition
program policy and for labeling purposes.
©2012 Cengage Learning.
All Rights Reserved.
Food Guide Pyramid
• This is an interactive tool that allows
consumers to learn:
– About healthy eating patterns
– Nutrient-dense sources of essential vitamins
and minerals
– Portion size, moderation, and caloric intake
– Physical activity to balance food intake
– Recipes for healthy food preparation
©2012 Cengage Learning.
All Rights Reserved.
Food Guide Pyramid (continued)
MyPyramid Plan
©2012 Cengage Learning.
All Rights Reserved.
Food Guide Pyramid (continued)
• To view this document, go to:
http://www.mypyramid.gov. This link will take
you directly to the Food Guide Pyramid
website.
– Explore the many interactive features and
learn how to personalize the
recommendations.
– Also, be sure to tour MyPyramid for Kids.
©2012 Cengage Learning.
All Rights Reserved.
Nutrition Guidelines (continued)
• Other nutrient guidelines designed to
encourage healthy lifestyle practices
include:
– Dietary Guidelines for Healthy Americans
– Health People 2020
– Canada’s Food Guide
©2012 Cengage Learning.
All Rights Reserved.
Dietary Guidelines for Healthy
Americans
• Key recommendations include:
– Consuming a variety of nutrient-dense foods within
caloric needs
– Maintaining a healthy weight
– Engaging in physical activity on a regular basis
– Including a variety of fruits and vegetables each day
– Reducing saturated fat and cholesterol intake
– Keeping fat intake to 20 to 30 percent of total calories
©2012 Cengage Learning.
All Rights Reserved.
Dietary Guidelines for Healthy
Americans (continued)
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Choosing fiber-rich and whole grain carbohydrates
Decreasing sugar intake
Consuming less than 2000 mg of sodium daily
Drinking alcoholic beverages in moderation
Practicing food safety
• This document can be viewed at:
http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/dietaryguidelines.htm
©2012 Cengage Learning.
All Rights Reserved.
Healthy People 2020
• Areas of health that are addressed:
– Physical activity, nutrition and weight
management, mental health, injury and
violence prevention, oral health, food safety,
environmental health, immunization and
infectious diseases, and improved access to
health care.
– This document can be viewed at:
http://www.healthypeople.gov
©2012 Cengage Learning.
All Rights Reserved.
Canada’s Food Guide to Healthy
Eating
• Canada’s Food Guide provides similar
recommendations.
• This document can be viewed at:
http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/food-guidealiment/
©2012 Cengage Learning.
All Rights Reserved.
Case Study
1. Betsy, age 3½ , drinks milk to the exclusion of adequate
amounts of foods from other food groups. What nutrient
is Betsy receiving in excess? What two nutrients are
most likely to be deficient?
2. Jason, age 4, refuses to eat fruit. He will occasionally
accept a small serving of applesauce and a few bites of
banana but little else. What two nutrients are probably
deficient in Jason’s diet?
3. Jeremy, age 3, is allergic to milk and dairy products.
What nutrient is deficient in Jeremy’s diet?
©2012 Cengage Learning.
All Rights Reserved.
Case Study
4. Tommy, age 2, by choice will eat only high carbohydrate
foods, preferably those that are sweet. He rejects highprotein, high-fat foods such as meats and cheese. How
would you change his diet to provide adequate protein
and fat for normal growth and nerve development
without increasing his carbohydrate intake with high-fat
pastries, cakes, and so on?
5. Mary, age 4, refuses milk and all milk products; she likes
to drink a variety of juices. How would you adjust her diet
to ensure that she meets her calcium requirement?
©2012 Cengage Learning.
All Rights Reserved.