Protein: Supplements vs. whole foods - Paige Whitmire`s E

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Transcript Protein: Supplements vs. whole foods - Paige Whitmire`s E

PROTEIN:
SUPPLEMENTS VS. WHOLE FOODS
Paige Whitmire
Dietetic Intern 2014
Objectives
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Protein Overview
Current Issues
High Protein Diets
Protein from Whole Foods
Protein from Supplements
Protein Benefits for Elderly?
Why do we need protein?
• Macronutrient
• Protein is in every cell of the body
– Bones, muscles, cartilage, skin, hair, nails and
blood
– Build and repair cells and tissues
• Growth and development
– Makes enzymes, hormones, and other body
chemicals
Daily Requirements from CDC
Grams of protein needed each day
Children: 1 – 3 years
13
Children: 4 – 8 years
19
Children: 9 – 13 years
34
Girls: 14 – 18 years
46
Boys: 14 – 18 years
52
Women: 19 – 70+ years
46
Men: 19 – 70+ years
56
Average Grams of Protein from
WHOLE FOODS
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3oz of meat: 21g
Greek yogurt: 12g
1 egg: 7g
½ cup beans: 7g
¼ cup nuts/seeds: 6g
1oz cheese: 7g
1 cup milk: 8g
Average Grams of Protein from
SUPPLEMENTS (1 scoop)
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Muscle Milk: 50g
Elite: 24g
Arnold Iron Whey: 22g
Syntha-6: 22g
COR-Performance Whey: 25g
Optimum Nutrition Gold Standard Whey: 24g
Special Protein Requirements
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Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women
Athletes
Starting/increasing a workout plan
Vegetarians/Vegans
Kidney Disease
Liver Disease
Objectives
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Protein Overview
Current Issues
High Protein Diets
Protein from Whole Foods
Protein from Supplements
Protein Benefits for Elderly?
Current Issues
• Protein powders are used in place of proteinrich whole food sources
• Media images of men are large, lean, and
muscular
• Current controversies around protein
supplements
Why use protein powders?
• Easy, convenient source of protein
• Want to look like the men in the media
images
• Drinking preference over eating
• Meet calorie/protein needs
Current Issues
• Protein powders are used in place of proteinrich whole food sources
• Media images of men are large, lean, and
muscular
• Current controversies around protein
supplements
Study: Muscle-Enhancing Behaviors
Among Adolescent Girls and Boys
• Journal of the American Academy of
Pediatrics
• n = 2,793 adolescents
• Assessed 5 muscle-enhancing behaviors
• Results: personal survey
Study Results: boys
Source
Percentage Used
Protein Powders
34.7%
Steroids
5.9%
Other muscle-enhancing
substances
10.5%
Whole Foods
48.9%
Previous study in 2005: 10.2% of teen boys used a protein
supplement of any kind
Current study (2012): 51.1% of teen boys used a protein
supplement of any kind
Boys Results (n=1,307)
School Level
Middle School
High School
Race
Caucasian
Asian
SES
Low
Medium
High
BMI Category
Underweight
Average
Overweight
Obese
Sports Team
Yes
No
Increased Exercise
Protein Use
39.8%
41.8%
29.7%
38.8%
46.0%
34.6%
32.1%
33.5%
38.6%
42.8%
41.7%
37.4%
31.7%
40.0%
31.3%
41.2%
41.6%
43.2%
34.3%
32.3%
38.6%
35.7%
49.5%
26.9%
39.6%
25.5%
Girls Results (n=1,486)
School Level
Middle School
High School
Race
Caucausian
Asian
SES
Low
Medium
High
BMI Category
Underweight
Average
Overweight
Obese
Sports Team
Yes
No
Increased Exercise
Protein Use
29.8%
25.1%
24.7%
18.2%
30.2%
25.8%
17.7%
23.4%
24.1%
33.1%
31.8%
21.8%
22.3%
17.1%
21.3%
24.4%
30.6%
33.8%
24.6%
17.8%
23.9%
28.3%
35.2%
18.3%
24.2%
18.2%
Reasons for Use
Reasons
% of Total Males
% of Total Females
For my health
26.6%
37.9%
Strength/Power
27.1%
17.2%
Increase energy
9.8%
16.2%
I felt I needed to
14.2%
14.7%
Inadequate diet
5.4%
6.4%
Current Issues
• Protein powders are used in place of proteinrich whole food sources
• Media images of men are large, lean, and
muscular
• Current controversies around protein
supplements
Controversy #1: Building Muscles
• Myth: “Eating extra protein builds more
muscle.”
– Fact: the only way to build muscle is through
weight bearing exercise and meeting protein
requirements through diet
Controversy #2: Validity
• Proof that a supplement works is not
required.
• Proof that a supplement is safe is not
required.
• There is no testing of products for purity.
Controversy #3: Meeting Recommendations
• Easy to meet protein requirements through
eating a variety of healthy foods
• Supplements can lead to an excess amount of
protein
Objectives
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Protein Overview
Current Issues
High Protein Diets
Protein from Whole Foods
Protein from Supplements
Protein Benefits for Elderly?
Benefits of a high protein diet
• Weight loss
– Lead to ketosis
• Excrete excess protein
• High satiety
Risks of a high protein diet
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High fat meat and dairy products
Decreased carbohydrates
Ketosis
Kidney problems
Liver problems
Osteoporosis
Objectives
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•
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Protein Overview
Current Issues
High Protein Diets
Protein from Whole Foods
Protein from Supplements
Protein Benefits for Elderly?
Protein from WHOLE FOODS: Positives
• Easy to meet requirements
• Variety of vitamins, minerals, and
antioxidants
• Satiety
Protein from WHOLE FOODS: Negatives
• High amounts of saturated fats, cholesterol,
sodium and calories
• Difficult to consume after a workout
• Prep time
• Price
Study: International Society of
Sports Nutrition position stand:
protein and exercise
• Conclusion: The International Society of Sport
Nutrition recommends individuals who
exercise should attempt to obtain their
protein requirements through whole foods,
but supplements are safe and easy
Objectives
•
•
•
•
•
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Protein Overview
Current Issues
High Protein Diets
Protein from Whole Foods
Protein from Supplements
Protein Benefits for Elderly?
Protein from SUPPLEMENTS: Positives
• Very high amounts of protein
• Provide amino acids that aren’t naturally
produced
• Help individuals with specific requirements
• Liquid preference
• Minimal prep
• Whey shakes have complete
proteins
Protein from SUPPLEMENTS: Negatives
• Not necessary if eating a normal, healthy diet
• Less nutrients, refined sugars and artificial
ingredients
• Taste
• Safety
• Price
• The American Dietetic Association states that there
is no evidence that supplements enhance athletic
performance any better than food does
Objectives
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Protein Overview
Current Issues
High Protein Diets
Protein from Whole Foods
Protein from Supplements
Protein Benefits for Elderly?
Protein Supplementation Effect on
Senior Citizens?
• Increase skeletal muscle mass
• Improve physical performance
Study: Protein Supplementation
Improves Physical Performance in
Frail Elderly People
• 65 frail elderly
– (1) 15g breakfast and lunch supplementation
– (2) placebo
• Assessed impact of 24 week supplementation
with strength tests
Results
• Protein Group
– Muscle strength: ↑
– Physical Performance: ↑
– Skeletal muscle mass: no change
• Placebo Group
– Muscle strength: ↑
– Physical Performance: no change
– Skeletal muscle mass: no change
Positive Conclusions
• Elderly have trouble meeting needs
• Slowed metabolism and body functions
• ↑ physical performance and muscle strength
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