Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA`s)

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Transcript Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA`s)

Dietary
Reference
Intakes
By Jennifer Turley
and Joan Thompson
© 2013 Cengage
Presentation Overview
• Defining DRIs
• Looking at nutrients with DRIs
• Understanding how DRIs are used
What are DRIs?
• Standards to guide safe & adequate
intakes of essential nutrients for healthy
humans.
– Sick individuals have different needs.
• The year 2001, 2002, 2004 revision
values were designed to promote
optimal function & health for healthy
people.
• Are specific for groups of people based
on: life stage, gender, conditions of
pregnancy & lactation.
• Are adequate for moderately active
people.
How are DRIs established?
RDA: level to meet 97-98% of needs
• By scientific
AI: average or mean intake level.
committee
average daily nutrient intake
literature review. EAR:
level estimated to meet the
• Nutrients are
requirement of half the needs.
given an
Recommended
Dietary Allowance
(RDA), Adequate
Intake (AI), or
Estimated
Average
Requirement
(EAR) value by life
stage & gender.
Other DRI Components
• Tolerable upper intake levels (UL) for vitamins
& minerals.
– Highest intake level likely to pose no risk of
adverse health effects.
• Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges
(AMDR) for energy producing nutrients &
essential fatty acids.
– % Calorie range.
• Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) for
Calories.
• DRI for physical activity.
DRIs
Exist
For:
• Vitamins:
– A, D, E, K, B1 (thiamin), B2
(riboflavin), B3 (niacin), B6, B12,
folate, vitamin C
– biotin, pantothenic acid, choline
• Minerals:
– Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, I, Se
– Cu, Mn, Cr, Mo, F
– Na, K, Cl
• Water:
– Men ≥19 years: 3.7 L/day
(approx. 15 cups)
– Women ≥ 19 years : 2.7 L/day
(approx. 11 cups)
DRI for Protein
• The adult DRI for protein is set at 0.8 grams/Kg.
This level is for inactive persons.
• See appendix for gram/Kg need for infants,
children, and adolescents.
• Although not DRIs: Active persons need more
than the DRI, approximately 1.2 - 1.6 grams/Kg.
Endurance athletes need more than the DRI,
approximately 1.8-2.0 grams/Kg.
DRI for Calories
• Is calculated from formulas (See Appendix).
• Is set as an EAR and is the called the
estimated energy requirement (EER).
• The EER is based on age, gender, and
physical activity.
• The formulas require height in meters and
weight in kilograms.
DRI for Carbohydrate,
Fiber & Fat
• Carbohydrate: At least 130 gm/day for adults
• Fiber:  38 gm/d  25 gm/d, [adults]
• 1.4 gm/100 Calories consumed
• FAT: not determined for adults
• Essential Fatty Acids:
• Linoleic Acid:
17 12
[adults, gm/d ]
• Alpha-Linolenic Acid:
1.6  1.1
[adults, gm/d ]
DRI for
Exercise
• There is a DRI for
exercise!
• It is 60 minutes
cumulative moderate
exercise per day.
• That means moving body
parts and sweating while
you are doing it.
AMDRs
Na, K, Cl & Water
• In 2004 the DRI was published for Water and
the Electrolytes (Na, Cl, and K)
• Sodium (Na): 1.5 gm if 19-50 years Sodium
• Chloride (NaCl): 19-50 years 3.8 gm (3.8 gm
NaCl – 1.5 gm Na = 2.3 gm/day of Cl)
• Potassium (K): 4.7 gm/day if >18
• Water: 2.7 L/day if 3.7 L/day if
Tolerable Upper
Intake Levels: ULs
• For vitamins with DRIs
• For minerals with DRIs
• For arsenic, boron,
nickel, silicon, vanadium
DRIs Do Not Exist For:
•
•
•
•
Cholesterol
Sulfur (sulfate)
Cobalt
Non-essential, nutritional supplements
DRIs
• Are used to achieve nutritional balance
and health in the population.
• Are used in nutrition assessment, meal
planning, health care, research, food
industry, national defense, food
programs, public policy, etc.
Summary
• DRIs are a collection of values to express
a persons nutrient need based on their
life stage & gender.
• The exact DRI value may be as an RDA,
AI, EAR depending on scientific
information available for each nutrient.
• DRIs are expressed as ULs and AMDRs.
• For Calories the DRI is called the EER.
• There is DRI recommendation for
Physical activity.
• The DRIs are standards that have many
important purposes and uses.
References for this presentation are the same as those for this topic found in module 2 of the textbook