2 Biochemistry

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Transcript 2 Biochemistry

Biochemistry
Bio- = life or living things
Chemistry = study of chemical
compositions & reactions
Only 2 things in the Universe*
• Matter = anything that occupies space & has mass
solid, liquid, & gas
• Energy = capacity to do work, kinetic & potential
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Chemical energy: stored in chemical bonds
Electrical energy: movement of charged particles
Mechanical energy: directly moving matter
Radiant energy: electromagnetic waves
You are what you eat
• Food = contains chemicals that provide Energy
& the structure of your body
• Metabolism = the sum total of all chemical reactions
in the body
Quality of food = Quality of your metabolism
• Food Diary assignment
Atoms  Molecules  Cells
• Atoms (elements) C, H, O, & N are 96% of the body
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Carl Sagan video
Nucleus: protons (+) & neutrons (0)
Shell: electrons (-)
Isotopes: same atomic numbers, different atomic weights
Radioisotopes: larger, unstable, atomic decay called radioactivity
Radioisotopes used in medicine, PET scans to see physiology
• Molecules (compounds) chemical bonds (energy)
– ionic bonds (takes or gives electrons, forms ions)
– covalent bonds (sharing electrons)
• Ions (charged particles) can be either atoms or molecules
cations = positive charge
anions = negative charge
2 major classes of biological
compounds
-Inorganic (no carbon)
-Organic (contains carbon)*
* don’t confuse this chemistry term with the term for
organic foods (foods without pesticides, antibiotics, or
hormones)
INORGANIC COMPOUNDS
• chemicals that do not contain carbon
• water- most abundant & important, 60-80% of most cells
• salts- ionic compounds containing ions other than H+ & OH• salts of many metals are common in the body
ex: NaCl, Ca2CO3, KCl
• Ca3PO4 most plentiful salt, hardness of bones &
teeth, nerve transmission, muscle contraction,
transports oxygen with red blood cells, enzymes
INORGANIC COMPOUNDS
• pH scale- 1 (acid), 7 (water), 14 (base or alkaline)
• Acids- digestion HCl in stomach, Acetic Acid, &
Carbonic Acid are produced in the body
• Bases- Bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) is abundant in
the blood, Ammonia (NH3) common waste
product of protein breakdown
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
contain carbon, covalently bonded, many are large
carbon never loses or gains electrons, always shares them
four valence shell electrons, forms four bonds with other elements
found in long chains or rings uniquely suited for specific roles in the body
4 categories of organic molecules in the body:
• Proteins
• Carbohydrates
These are also
• Lipids (fats)
called “macromolecules”
• Nucleic Acids
because they are large.
Jigsaw Activity
4 categories of organic molecules in the body:
1.
2.
Proteins
Carbohydrates
3. Lipids (fats)
4. Nucleic Acids
Directions: Use your textbook & resource materials to find
information for your given organic molecule.
Poster to include: title, monomers (building blocks), polymers (at
least 3 or more examples), describe the structure, describe the
function, draw at least 2 pictures showing structure and/ or
function, be able to present & answer questions
You have notes on the 4 organic chemicals of
life but a couple more examples…
Carbohydrates = glucose, ribose, deoxyribose, fructose, galactose,
lactose (in milk), sucrose (table sugar), starch (in plants), cellulose (in plants),
glycogen (in animals), chitin (in animals & fungi)
Proteins = hemoglobin (in blood), collagen (in skin), elastin (structure),
myosin & actin (muscles), keratin (hair & nails), enzymes (catalysts), hormones*
(messengers), insulin (hormone), albumin (egg white)
Lipids = triglycerides, waxes, oils, steroids (includes some hormones*),
cholesterol
Nucleic Acids = DNA & RNA
How to build polymers
• Polymers are long repeating chains on monomers
• Dehydration Synthesis
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joins monomers by “taking” H2O out
one monomer donates OH–
one monomer donates H+
also called a
condensation
reaction
HO
H 2O
H
HO
H
(this process takes
energy & enzymes)
HO
H
How to break down a polymer
• Digestion, also called Hydrolysis
• use H2O to break down polymers
• reverse of dehydration synthesis
• H2O is split into H+ and OH–
H2O
(requires enzymes &
releases energy)
HO
HO
H
H
HO
H
Enzymes
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Act as a catalyst
Lowers activation energy
Works like a lock and key
Binds to a substrate
Blah, blah, blah, finish later…
Any Questions??
Group Activity – sticky notes
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designate a “runner” & two “recorders”
write each example on a separate sticky note
discuss each example with group members
runner places sticky note on correct word wall
• Examples:
cellulose
glycogen
cellulose
ammonia
hemoglobin
enzymes
albumin
triglycerides
elastin
potassium chloride
salt
collagen
lard
sodium chloride
water
myosin & actin
RNA
carbonic acid
sucrose
polypeptides
deoxyribose
galactose
steroids
lactose
insulin
keratin
hormones
cholesterol
wax
fructose
chitin
ribose
starch
oil
DNA
Cut & Paste Polymer synthesis activity
• each group member gets one (molecule) sheet of paper
• DON’T cut any molecular bond until you have found another to bond with
• color each drop of water blue
Carbohydrates = synthesize long chains of glycogen using all the
glucose in your group & attach water molecules in correct spots
Proteins = synthesize a polypeptide molecule using all the amino
acids in your group & attach water molecules in correct spots
Lipids = synthesize either a saturated or an unsaturated lipid using
the glycerol & fatty acids in your group; attach water molecules
Nucleic Acids = synthesize a DNA molecule using all the
nucleotides in your group; color all parts of the nucleotide (ribose =
red, phosphate = blue, G= green, C= yellow, A= purple, T= orange)