Interpreting Pet Food Labels

download report

Transcript Interpreting Pet Food Labels

Interpreting Pet Food Labels
pgs 304- 317
Ingredient quality has a significant effect
on nutrient availability. Although strict
guidelines for pet food ingredients must be
met, standards for quality are not as well
Ingredients derived from animal tissues
are sources of protein, fat, calcium,
phosphorus and other minerals.
Ingredients derived from plant material is
an excellent source of protein, essential
amino acids, carbohydrates, essential fatty
acids, vitamins and minerals.
How its made
Three basic physical forms of
pet food
Semi moist
Wet (or canned or moist)
These three forms vary primarily in
water content
Dry contains about 10% water and is the only form of food suitable for ad lib
feeding. Dry, crunchy foods can be helpful in keeping teeth clean and reducing
plaque buildup, but should not replace a dental health regiment. A
disadvantage of dry food is a lower palatability compared to semi-moist or wet.
Dry foods typically provide 1,300 to 2,000 kcal of ME per pound of food DM.
Semi-moist typically contains 25 – 35 % water. Advantages includes higher
palatability, serving convenience, and easy storage. Disadvantage is the greater
cost per serving and some semi-moist foods contain simple carbohydrates that
are not recommended for diabetic cats or dogs. Contain approximately 1,200 –
1,350 kcal of ME per pound of food DM
Canned or wet foods contain about 75% moisture. These foods have the
highest palatability but typically cost more per serving. These foods are
less convenient to store.
Wet food contains higher levels of protein, phosphorus,
sodium and fat on a DM basis. Contain approximately
1,600 – 2,300 kcal of ME per pound of food DM
• A complete food means that the
food contains all of the required
nutrients for a particular life stage
in a bioavailable form.
• A balanced food contains all of
the required nutrients in correct
proportions relative to the food’s
total energy density
Humectants: preservatives added that bind to water and
inhibit mold and fungal growth.
clean flesh from slaughtered animals and limits it to striated
muscle associated with skeletal, tongue, diaphragm, heart,
esophagus, viscera (all organs in chest and abdominal cavities)
excludes intestinal content.
Natural, Organic, Holistic
• Natural: avoids chemically synthesized
ingredients. Vitamin E is a natural
• Organic: foods not exposed to insecticides,
antibiotics, growth hormones
• Holistic: no official definition
Raw Diets
• Food in its natural uncooked state.
• Cautions: bacteria and diets that are
complete and balanced.
Crude Protein
• Crude protein is only an estimate of the
protein contained. It is obtained by
measuring the amount of nitrogen.
• On average protein contains 16%
• To calculate the estimated protein, we must
first mathematically removed the water.
Protein Requirements
• Unfortunately, the essential-to-nonessential
amino acid profile, protein digestibility, and
amino acid bioavailability may or may not
be measured or stated on pet food labels.
• It is best to contact the manufacturer
directly to obtain this information.
• Lower quantities of a higher biologic
quality protein usually represent a higher
quality food, and thus, a more appropriate
nutritional objective.
What is in a name?
Product names are dictated by
the percentages of named
ingredients. The AAFCO has
four primary percentage rules.
These rules pertain to the animal
based protein only.
This applies to products
consisting primarily of meat,
poultry or fish.
These foods have simple names
such as Beef for Dogs or Tuna
Cat Food. At least 95% of the
product must be the named
ingredient (by weight), not
counting the water added for
processing. Counting the added
water, the named ingredient must
still comprise 70% of the
If the food name includes a
combination of protein ingredients
then the two together must
comprise 95% of the total weight.
The first ingredient named must
be the one of higher
Eg. Chicken and beef dog food
must contain a higher % of
The 95% rule only applies to
ingredients of animal origin.
Grains can not be used as a
component of the 95% total. For
example, a Lamb and Rice dog
food would be misnamed unless
the product contained at least
95% lamb.
If the named ingredients comprise
at least 25% of the product but
less than 95% then the pet food
name must include a qualifying
descriptive term such as “dinner,
platter, entrée, nuggets or
Therefore “Beef Dinner for Dogs”
only has to contain ¼ beef
The primary ingredient is not
always the named ingredient so
Chicken Formula Cat Food may
contain more fish than chicken.
or the “with” rule
This rule was intended to apply
to ingredients that appeared
outside the product name.
Therefore label may include a
sideburst is at least 3% of that
ingredient is added.
AAFCO also allows the term
“with” indicating that 3% of that
ingredient has been added. This
can become confusing for the
consumer because Cat Food with
Tuna (3% tuna) is very different
from Tuna Cat Food (95% tuna).