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Biospecies Information
By: Bryan Sadowski
Proteins
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Made up of amino acid chains
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Typically 200-300, but can be as high as 27,000 (titin)
Functions proteins are responsible for:
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Structures of cells
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Transport of materials in
body fluids
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Receptors for hormones
http://www.accessexcellence.org/AB/GG/aminoAcid.html
Amino Acids
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The monomers making up protein polymers
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Made of alpha C, attached to:
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Amino group
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Carboxyl group to donate H
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One of 20 “R” groups
Aline amino acid representation
http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPag
es/A/AminoAcids.html
Nine essential amino acids
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Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine,
Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Valine
Enzymes
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Catalysts for body funtions
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Most are proteins
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some use RNA as catalysts (ribozymes)
Bond temporarily to reactants and lower
activation energy for reaction
Example of a body catalyst
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Carbonic anhydrase in red blood cells
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CO2 + H2O <-> H2CO3, allows transport of carbon dioxide from tissue to lungs
Cells
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Structural units that make up plants and animals
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Made up of 90% cytoplasm
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Other 10% consist of:
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Free amino acids, proteins, glucose, etc...
59% H, 24% O, 11% C, 4% N, 2% other
Some of the organelles in the cell:
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Nucleus (DNA), endoplasmic reticulum (protein
synthesis), mitochondria (food to energy)
Nucleic Acids
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Building blocks of DNA and RNA
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Four types of bases
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Adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), cytosine (C)
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Bond A to T and C to G
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Form into two complimentary, antiparallel chains
adenine
thymine
cytosine
http://ndbserver.rutgers.edu/NDB/archives/NAintr
o/
guanine
Sources
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http://www.cbc.umn.edu/~mwd/cell_www/cell_intro.html
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http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/P/Proteins.html
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http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/A/AminoAcids.html
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http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/E/Enzymes.html
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http://ndbserver.rutgers.edu/NDB/archives/NAintro/