Final Exam Review Part B - Hudson City School District

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Transcript Final Exam Review Part B - Hudson City School District

Final Honors Biology Exam
Review
2014
WARNING!!!!!!
• This is not a substitute for your own study
notes. You are to do your own preparation.
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for the exam is YOUR responsibility.
CHAPTER 5
Label the Fluid Mosaic Model
ANSWERS
Carbohydrate
chain
glycoprotein
phosphate
lipid
Matching
• Which are active and which are passive
transport?
• Diffusion
• Exocytosis
• Phagocytosis
• Osmosis
• Facilitated
• Ion pump
Matching
• Which are active and which are passive
transport?
• Diffusion
P
• Exocytosis A
• Phagocytosis A
• Osmosis P
• Facilitated P
• Ion pump A
Predict the movement of water
with arrows:
ANSWER
• Remember water moves from hypotonic to
hypertonic.
How is the movement of water
of osmosis different in plants
and animal cells?
Label the diagram:
• energy from exergonic reactions
Energy from endergonic reactions
ATP
ADP + P
ANSWER
Which are true of enzymes?
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Proteins
Reusable
Very general
Specific
Carbohydrates
Speed up a reaction
Raise activation energy
Lower activation energy
Which are true of enzymes?
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Proteins
Reusable
Specific
Speed up a reaction
Lower activation energy
Label the type of enzyme
inhibition
Label the type of enzyme
inhibition
What kinds of endocytosis are
present in this diagram?
What kinds of endocytosis are
present in this diagram?
Label: active site and substrate
of an enzyme
ANSWER
CHAPTER 6
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Where do these processes occur?
Krebs cycle
matrix
Citric acid cycle
matrix
Fermentation
cytoplasm
Glycolysis
cytoplasm
Label the Cut and Grooming of
Pyruvate
ANSWER
What is the role of oxygen in
cellular respiration?
ANSWER:
Final electron acceptor
Respiratory System
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Label:
Pharynx
Larynx
Alveoli
Diaphragm
Lungs
Bronchi
bronchioles
What is the equation for cellular
respiration?
What is the role of oxygen in
cellular respiration?
Make water
Make glucose
Final electron acceptor
Excite electrons
ANSWER: final electron acceptor
How much ATP does each
process make when one
glucose is broken down?
• Glycolysis
• Krebs cycle
• ETC and chemiosmosis
• ANSWER: 2, 2, 34
Which goes with lactic acid fermentation and
which goes with alcoholic fermentation?
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Produces CO2
Produces product in animal muscles
Produces ethanol
Produced by yeast
Which goes with lactic acid fermentation and
which goes with alcoholic fermentation?
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Produces CO2 Alcoholic
Produces product in animal muscles Lac
Produces ethanol Alcoholic
Produced by yeast Alcoholic
What products are made at the
end of glycolysis of glucose?
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FADH2
ATP
NADH
NADPH
ADP
Pyuruvate
OAA
What products are made at the
end of glycolysis of glucose?
For each molecule of glucose broken down,
how many are formed in Krebs cycle?
ATP
2
NADH
6
FADH2
2
CO2
4
What process regenerates
NAD+ so glycolysis can
continue?
• Fermentation
In what organelle do these take
place?
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Cellular respiration
Mitochondrion
Photosynthesis
chloroplast
Find the oxidation and reduction in
the cellular respiration equation:
FIND: ETC, H+ ions collection,
reduction of NADH2,
chemiosmosis, water forming
ANSWER
CHAPTER 7
• Convert 400 calories to kilocalories
• And to Calories:
• ANSWER:
• 0.4 kilocalories of 0.4 kilocalories
Label the leaf and chloroplast:
ANSWER
ANSWER
What is the chemical equation
to photosynthesis?
How do the equations of
photosynthesis and cellular
respiration compare?
What is produced at the end of
PSI and PSII?
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Water
Oxygen
NADPH
NADH
ADP
ATP
Glucose
What is produced at the end of
PSI and PSII?
• Oxygen
• NADPH
• And ATP at the end of chemiosmosis
Which enzyme allows for the carbon
fixation of CO2 in the Calvin Cycle?
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Helicase
Calvinase
Carbase
Rubisco
• ANSWER: rubisco
In the LDR where do the H+
ions accumulate?
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Matrix
Stroma
Thylakoid interior
Inner membrane space
• ANSWER: thylakoid interior (lumen)
The changing of unusable carbon
into usable carbon is known as:
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Glycolysis
Fixation
Respiration
Carbonation
• ANSWER: fixation
What is the ATP synthase used
for?
• H+ ions pass through this enzyme
complex to turn and cause P to join ADP
to make ATP.
• Where is an ATP synthase found?
• In membrane of thylakoid disk and also
the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.
Label the following:
ANSWER
What pigments are absorbed
and reflected of chlorophyll a?
• Absorbed:
• Blue and red
• Reflected
• Green and yellow
Which gas contributes the most
to the greenhouse effect?
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Carbon dioxide
Oxygen
Water vapor
Nitrogen
• ANSWER: carbon dioxide
CHAPTER 8 Cell Division
• Check if it refers to A = asexual
reproduction or S = sexual reproduction.
• Two offspring
makes gametes
• Four offspring
meiosis
• Diploid to diploid
mitosis
• Diploid to haploid
• One parent
• Two parents
CHAPTER 8 Cell Division
• Check if it refers to A = asexual
reproduction or S = sexual reproduction.
• Two offspring A
makes gametes S
• Four offspring S
meiosis S
• Diploid to diploid A
mitosis A
• Diploid to haploid S
• One parent A
• Two parents S
Match the genetic structure:
• Loose DNA + protein
• Chromatin
• Paired, tightly coiled, identical DNA +
protein
• Chromatids
• Single strand of somewhat coiled DNA +
protein
• chromosome
What are the phases of mitosis?
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Prophase
Prometaphase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
Identify the phases of mitosis:
Identify the phases of mitosis:
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anaphase
prophase
telophase
metaphase
Which happens in
prometaphase of mitosis?
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Nuclear envelope dissolves
Single chromosomes move to the poles
Sister chromatids are tightly coiled
Nuclear envelope reforms
Centrioles are moving to the poles
Mitotic spindles form
Which happens in
prometaphase of mitosis?
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Nuclear envelope dissolves
Sister chromatids are tightly coiled
Centrioles are moving to the poles
Mitotic spindles form
How is cytokinesis different in
plants than in animal cells?
ANIMALS:
Cleavage Furrow
PLANTS:
Cell Plate
What makes the chromatids
move to opposite poles?
• Spindles shorten
• Centrioles shorten
• Nuclear envelope pinches them
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• ANSWER: spindles shorten
What causes cells to stop
growing in a Petri dish?
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Law of segregation
Law of independent assortment
Density-dependent inhibition
Anchorage dependence
• ANSWER: density-dependent inhibition
Which might be true of cancer
cells?
• Unable to replicate
• Stopped in metaphase
• Continue to divide
• ANSWER: continue to divide
Label the Cell Cycle
Label the Cell Cycle
• 1. G1
2. S 3. G2 4. prophase
• 5.metaphase 6. anaphase
• 7.telophase 8. cytokinesis
Where does the type of cancer
come from?
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Carcinoma
Skin or lining of digestive tract
Sarcoma
Bone or muscle
Lymphoma
Lymph system
Leukemia
Bone marrow
What is the homologous
chromosome?
What is the homologous
chromosome?
If given the haploid number,
what is the diploid number?
• N=5
• 2N = 10
• N = 23
• 2N = 46
What phases of meiosis are
these?
What phases of meiosis are
these?
• Metaphase II
Metaphase I
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prophase I
anaphase II
How many possible combinations are there
of chromosomes in meiosis if haploid
number is 4?
• Remember 2N
• So…
• 24
• = 16
Which is not a source of
genetic variability?
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Crossing over in meiosis I
Random fertilization
Independent orientation of chromosomes
Mitosis
• ANSWER: mitosis
What genetic disorder?
What genetic disorder?
Explain these:
Which are Mendelian genetics?
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Dominant and recessive
Law of segregation
Codominance
Incomplete dominance
Homozygous and heterozygous
pleiotropy
Which are Mendelian genetics?
• Dominant and recessive
• Law of segregation
• Homozygous and heterozygous
What are the genotypic and
phenotypic ratios of this cross?
• A = agile
a = clumsy
What are the genotypic and
phenotypic ratios of this cross?
• Genotypic: AA : Aa : aa
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1 :2:1
• Phenotypic: Agile : clumsy
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3 :1
Cross RrFf X RrFf
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Phenotypic ratio:
R = red
R = white
F= fancy
f = plain
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Red Fancy 9
Red Plain 3
White fancy 3
White plainn 1
The fertilization of an egg with a
sperm forms:
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Fetus
Zygote
Parent cell
Umbilical cord
• ANSWER: zygote
Which scientist did this?
• Used radioactive P and S in bacteriopage
viruses to determine DNA was the genetic
material?
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Avery
Watson and Crick
Hershey and Chase
Rosalind Franklin
Irwin Chargaff
Which scientist did this?
• Used radioactive P and S in bacteriopage
viruses to determine DNA was the genetic
material?
• Hershey and Chase
Which scientist did this?
• Won a Nobel Prize for determining the
structure of DNA?
• Avery
• Watson and Crick
• Hershey and Chase
• Rosalind Franklin
• Irwin Chargaff
Which scientist did this?
• Won a Nobel Prize for determining the
structure of DNA?
• Watson and Crick and Wilkins
How will I know if Fluffy is FF or
Ff?
• Cross her with ff and see if the
homozygous gene appears.
What is the probability of an
offspring of AaBbCc?
• Parents are: AaBbCc
X aaBBCc
• What Law will solve this?
What is the probability of an
offspring of AaBbcc?
• Parents are: AaBbCc
Aa
= ½
Bb
= ½
cc
= ¼
X aaBbCc
1/ 16
LAW OF MULTIPLICATION
If you crossed a Black dog with
a White dog and Got a Gray
Dog it is…
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Codominance
Complete Dominance
Incomplete Dominance
Recessiveness
• ANSWER: Incomplete Dominance
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II-3 in the below family has two brothers and three sons with
classical hemophilia (factor VIII deficiency). Now she is pregnant
again. How likely is it that this child will also have hemophilia?
A. 100% for a son and 50% for a daughter
B. 100% for a son, zero for a daughter
C. 50% for a son, zero for a daughter
D. 50% for both sons and daughters
E. 25% for a son and zero for a daughter
• ANSWER: C do Punnetts for XCXc
X XCy
Do a Cross of two
Achrondroplasia parents:
• What are their chances of having a normal
height child?
2 Achondro parents
• Normal = aa = ¼
Or 1/3 of possible living births
What are linked genes?
• Those that are on the same chromosomes
and are inherited together.
Cross a color-blind father with a
heterozygous normal sight
mother:
ANSWER
Calculate the Recombination
Frequency of:
• The fruit fly offspring had the following
phenotypic distribution:
• wild type = 778
• black-vestigial = 785
• black-normal = 158
• gray-vestigial = 162
• What is the recombination frequency
between these genes for body color and
wing type. SOLUTION LINK
Which enzyme uncoils the spiral
of DNA?
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Helicase
Topoisomerase
Ligase
DNA polymerase
• ANSWER: Topoisomerase
What holds the DNA strands
apart so the nucleotides can
enter the open DNA?
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DNA polymerase
Helicase
SSB’s
Helicase
• ANSWER: SSB’s
What makes up mature mRNA?
• Introns only
• Exons only
• Both introns and exons
• ANSWER: exons only
What is the complementary strand
of DNA?
•A T T C C G
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ANSWER:
TAAGGC
If GCT is the original DNA,
• What is the complementary
mRNA?
• ANSWER: CGA
• What is the complementary
tRNA?
• ANSWER: GCU
What is Chargaff’s rule?
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A. amounts of A=T and C=G
B. amounts of A=C and G=T
C. amounts of A=G and C=T
D. amounts of A, T, C, and G are equal
• ANSWER: A
What amino acids do these form?
• AUG CCG UAC CCC UAG
• Methionine - proline - tyrosine - proline- STOP
Where is the sugar? The phosphate?
The nitrogenous bases?
Where is the sugar? The phosphate?
The nitrogenous bases?
• Phosphate
• Sugar
• Nitrogenous base
Which of the following is a
purine?
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Uracil
Thymine
Cytosine
Adenine
• ANSWER: adenine
Which of the following is correct
for RNA?
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Double stranded
Single stranded
Contains uracil
Contains thymine
Can be found only in the nucleus
Can be found in the nucleus and the
cytoplasm
Which of the following is correct
for RNA?
• Single stranded
• Contains uracil
• Can be found in the nucleus and the
cytoplasm
Which infection forms a
prophage?
• Lysogenic
• Lytic
• ANSWER: lysogenic
What do you call the 3 bases of:
• DNA - mRNA - tRNA
• ANSWER: triplet - codon - anticodon
Identify the parts of protein
synthesis:
ANSWERS
What is the mutation?
• ORIGINAL DNA: AAA AUG CCC CUA
• MUTATION:
AAA GUA CCC CUA
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A. insertion
B. deletion
C. translocation
D. inversion
ANSWER: inversion
Which mutations will be inherited?
• A. from both somatic and sex cells
• B. from only sex cells
• C. from only somatic cells
• ANSWER: B
What would be the DNA bases to
join these single strands?
• ATTCCG
• TAAGGCGCTA
• ANSWER: A T T C C G C G A T
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TAAGGCGCTA
What process separate DNA
according to size and charge?
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A. PCR
B. gel electrophoresis
C. cloning
D. probing
• ANSWER: gel electrophoresis
What is the definition of evolution?
• A. change in a population over time
• B. process in which an organism becomes
extinct
• C. reproductive isolation of members of
certain species
• D. replacement of one community by
another
• ANSWER: A
Scientific age of the Earth
• A. 60,000 years old
• B. 4.5 million years old
• C. 4.5 billion years old
• ANSWER: C
Define homologous structures:
• A. same structures, same functions, same
origins
• B. same structures, different functions,
same origins
• C. different structures, same functions,
same origins
• D. different structures, same functions,
different origins
• ANSWER: B
Inherited traits that help an
organism to survive and reproduce
in a particular environment is
called:
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A. adaptations
B. mutations
C. petrification
D. evolution
ANSWER: A
If you have a large number of
differences of amino acids in a
protein found in two different
species suggest that:
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A. they evolved in similar environments
B. they are closely related
C. the are distantly related to one another
D. they are the same species
ANSWER: C
What is a group of populations
whose individuals have the
potential to interbreed and produce
fertile offsping?
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A. POPULATION
B. SPECIES
C. COMMUNITY
D. ECOSYSTEM
• Answer: SPECIES
If A=.7 and a=.3, what is the
frequency of the homozygous
dominant individuals?
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A. .49
B. .09
C. .42
D. 1
• ANSWER: A
HINT: USE YOUR HARDYWEINBERG EQUATION
Which graph is showing directional
evolution?
• A.
• B.
• C.
• ANSWER:
A
Darwin did not know about:
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A. fossils
B. genes
C. gene flow
D. artificial selection
• ANSWER: B
Which phylogenetic tree
shows the most diversity?
• A
B
• ANSWER: C
C
What are same structures, same
origin, different function?
• A. homologous
• B. analagous
• ANSWER:
• homologous
Which scientist wrote the “Origin
of Species” and agrees with
gradualism?
• Stephen Jay Gould
• Lyell
• Charles Darwin
• ANSWER: Darwin
Which graph shows stabilizing
selection?
Which graph shows stabilizing
selection?
What is genetic drift?
• The movement of alleles in and out of a
population.
• The change in the frequency of alleles in a
population.
• Change in the gene pool of a population
due to chance.
• ANSWER: Change in the gene pool of a
population due to chance.
What is the criteria for a new
speccies?
• Must look alike
• Must be able to mate
• Must be able to mate and have fertile
offspring
ANSWER: Must be able to mate and have
fertile offspring
What do we call when many species form
from an ancestral one due to their
adaptations to the environment.
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Adaptive radiation
Coevolution
Convergent evolution
Convergent evolution
• ANSWER: adaptive radiation
Which is allopatric and which is
sympatric evolution?
Which is allopatric and which is
sympatric evolution?