Upper, Downers & All Arounders

download report

Transcript Upper, Downers & All Arounders

Upper, Downers &
All Arounders
Chapter 1
Today & Tomorrow
Five Themes of Drug Use
1. Humans have a basic need to cope with
their environment
•
Found that certain plants would ease:
•
•
•
•
•
Anxiety
Reduce pain
Treat illnesses
Give pleasure
Allow them to communicate with Gods
Five Themes of Drug Use
2. Human brain is affected by drugs to induce an
altered state of consciousness
– Affects the primitive or old part of brain that controls
emotions
– Natural physiological functions such as breathing &
heart rate
– Emotional Memories
– Sensory perceptions
– Physical and emotional pain
– Instincts
– Reasoning and memory of new brain “neocortex”
Five Themes of Drug Use
3. Governments and Businesses
involvement in cultivating, manufacturing,
distribution, taxing and prohibition
– Struggle to control supply of drugs
– Use of opium by medicine men in ancient
Sumeria for secret medicines
– Pharaohs in ancient Egypt gave beer to
slaves as an incentive to build pyramids
– Monopolization of Coca leaf production by
Conquistadors in Peru to increase tax
revenues for spain
Five Themes of Drug Use
Governments and Businesses (continued)
– Exportation and excise taxes on whiskey,
hemp and tobacco to finance the American
Revolution
– Sale of opium to China by Britain, France &
Japan to support their colonies
– Growing and smuggling opium in
Afghanistan to support insurgent activities
– Prohibition or restriction of alcohol, tobacco,
opium and other drugs by many countries to
control excessive drug use.
Five Themes of Drug Use
4. Technological Advances in refining and
synthesizing drugs to increase their
potency.
– Distilling alcohol (Arabia, 10th century)
– Refining morphine from opium (Germany
1803)
– Refine cocaine from coca leaves (Germany
(1859)
– Creation of alcohol sedation pill form from
synthesizing barbiturates (Germany,
1868/1908)
Five Themes of Drug Use
4. Technological Advances (continued)
•
Synthesize amphetamines to replace
cocaine (Germany, 1887 & 1932)
– Extracting LSD from ergot fungus
(Switzerland, 1938)
– Simsemilla-growing to increase potency
(THC) content in marijuana
– Modify amphetamine molecules to produce
designer drugs MDA & MDMA (ecstasy) US
1910 to present)
Five Themes of Drug Use
5. Development of more efficient & faster ways of
putting drugs into the body has intensified
effects.
–
–
–
–
–
Mixing alcohol and opium (Sumeria 4000 BC)
Absorb more juice from coca leaves by mixing with
charred oyster shells (Peru 1450)
Inhaling nitrous oxide (England 1800)
Injecting morphine (England 1855)
Snorting Cocaine to absorb drug more quickly
(Europe 1900)
Five Themes of Drug Use
5. Development of more efficient & faster
ways of putting drugs into the body has
intensified effects.
– Dissolve LSD to blotter paper to be
absorbed by tongue (US 1960’s)
– Smoke freebase & crack cocaine to intensify
high (US 1975 – 1985)
– Crush & inject time-released medications
such as Oxycontin for big rush (US 2003)
– Altering amphetamine-products to produce
smokable form of methamphetamine (ICE)
TYPES OF DRUGS
• Heroin
– Afghanistan largest producer/grower of opium
– Mexican Black Tar & Brown Heroin and Columbian
White
• Cocaine
– Grown in South America: Columbia, Peru & Bolivia
– 1.2 American use on a regular basis
• Marijuana
– Widely available
– Supreme Court ruled in 2001 that federal law
prohibits dispensing drug to seriously ill even if the
state allows it.
– Legalization in states vary
• Club Drugs
– Reemerged due to raves that are parties held
in clubs, warehouses or remote areas where
a wide variety of drugs available, especially
psychedelics
– MDMA: Estacy and GHB are common at
raves
• Methamphetamines:
– Manufactured in makeshift home labs
– Sold as crank, crystal, meth & speed
– Spreading to number of countries
– Thailand produce small methamphetamine
pills called “ya ba”
• Alcohol
– Kills over 130,000 people per year compared
with 8,000 deaths from illegal drugs
– Causes include genetic susceptibility,
neurobiology
– Treatment of alcoholism, include
pharmacological interventions to reduce
gravings
• Oxycontin: formerly known as Percodan
– Crushing drug the drug allows the time
released capsules to be absorbed all at once
• Hydrocodone (Vicodin) most widely
abused prescription drug
• HIV, AIDS, and Hepatitis C
– Spreads rapidly in part due to pathogens by
intravenous drug use
– High-risk sexual practices resulting from lower
inhibitions
• Behavioral Addictions:
– Eating disorders
– Compulsive gambling
– Sexual addictions
– Compulsive shopping
– Tend to have the same signs and symptoms
of drug addictions
Major Drugs
• Uppers (cocaine, amphetamines, diet pills,
Ritalin, khat, caffeine, nicotine)
– Physical effects: Stimulation of nervous system
•
•
•
•
•
Increased heart rate
Increase blood pressure
Insomia
Decrease in appetite
Large doses can cause cardiovascular problems, seizures,
stroke and sometimes death
– Mental/Emotional Effects
•
•
•
•
•
•
Increase in confidence
Euphoria
Anxiety
Paranoia
Mental confusion
Aggression & Anger
Major Drugs
• Downers (Depressants) depress the nervous
system: opiates/opiods, sedative hypnotics,
alcohol, antihistamines
– Physical Effects:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Slows heart rate and breathing
Relaxed muscles
Dull senses
Constipation
Nausea
Digestive problems
Large doses can depress the respiratory system
– Mental/Emotional Effects:
• Small doses lower inhibitions
• Relaxed and diminished anxiety
• Long term use causes physical dependence
Major Drugs
• All Arounders (psychedelics) distort perceptions
and can cause hallucinations, delusions or
illusions
– Physical Effects:
•
•
•
•
Nausea
Dizziness
Higher blood pressure
LSD causes stimulation
– Mental/emotional effects;
• Distortion of physical stimuli
• Mental confusion along with delusions, hallucinations and
illusions
• Varies among user depending on frequency of use, duration,
amount used
Other Drugs & Addiction
• Inhalants (gasses or liquids are inhaled)
glue, gasoline, paints & nitrous oxide
– Effects:
•
•
•
•
•
Dizziness
Slurred speech
Lack of coordination
Lower blood pressure
Various toxic effects on major organs
– Mental/emotional effects
• Excitability
• Irritability
• Delirium
Other Drugs & Addiction
• Anabolic Steroids and other Sports Drugs,
Steroids, amphetamines and several
therapeutic drugs enhance performance
– Physical Effects
•
•
•
•
Steroids include increased muscle mass
High blood pressure
Acne
Hormonal changes
– Mental/emotional effects
• Stimulation
• Outbursts of anger
Other Drugs & Addiction
• Psychiatric medications (Antidepressants,
anti-psychotics & anti-anxiety drugs are
used to rebalance brain chemistry)
– Physical effects:
• Act on heart and muscle systems
– Mental/emotional effects
•
•
•
•
Works to counteract depression
Control mood swings
Counter psychoses
Generally calms a person
Other Drugs & Addiction
• Compulsive Behaviors (eating disorders,
gambling, sex addiction, shopping,
codependency affects the same areas of
the brain as psychoactive drugs
– Physical Effects: Neurological Changes in the
brain
– Mental/emotional effects:
• Involves tolerance, dependence and withdrawal
Controlled Substances Act of 1970
• DEA classified all psychoactive drugs into
five levels or schedules subject to control
– Schedule I: heroin, LSD, marijuana, peyote,
psilocybin, mescaline & MDMA
• High abuse potential
• Supposedly no accepted medical use
– Schedule II: cocaine, methamphetamine,
opium, morphine, hydromorphone, codeine,
meperdine, oxycodone, and methylphenidate
• Have a high abuse potential with severe psychic or
physical dependence
• Have medical uses
Controlled Substances Act of 1970
– Schedule III (Tylenol Codeine, Some
barbiturates)
• Less Abuse potential
• Include schedule II drugs when used in componds
– Schedule IV
• Have even less abuse potential the schedule II
drugs
– Chloral hydrate, meprobamate, fenfluramine, diazepam
(valium) and other bezodiazepines, Phenobarbital
– Schedule V
• Low abuse potential because they contain limited
qualities of narcotic and stimulant drugs
– Robitusin AC, Lomotil, OTC Drugs