Seminar on Policy Studies

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Transcript Seminar on Policy Studies

International
Environmental Policy
NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY OF:
VIETNAM
HARI SRINIVAS
ROOM: I-312 / 079-565-7406
Vietnam at a glance
• Capital: Hanoi
• Total Area: 337,114 km2
• Population: 83 million (urban:
25%, rural: 75%).
• Density: 240 habitant/km2
• Humid tropical climate area
• Coastal strip with Red river
delta (North) and Mekong delta
(South)
• Almost its entire area is a
patchwork of rice paddies.
Four Stages of the Vietnam War
•
1946 The first Vietnam War begins
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1954
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STAGE 1
US begins advisory role in Vietnam
Thousands of US military advisors
sent to train South Vietnamese army
Vietcong Guerilla attacks begin in south
1961-1964
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STAGE 2
US begins counterinsurgency role in Vietnam
Green Berets sent in and secrete military
operations begin
November 1, 1963 Diem assassinated in US
supported military coup
November 22, 1963 JFK assassinated
August, 1964 Gulf of Tonkin
1965-1968
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Geneva Conference
Ends first Vietnam war and “temporarily”
divides the country at the 17th parallel
North Vietnam controlled by Ho Chi Minh and
communist supporters
South Vietnam controlled by Ngo Kinh Diem
and democratic supporters (US)
1955-1960
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•
France attempts to reassert its imperial
control over Vietnam
Vietnamese nationalists led by Ho Chi Minh
•
1968-1975
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STAGE 3
US begins combat role in Vietnam
First official combat troops arrive leading to
dramatic escalation of the war
January 30, 1968 “Tet Offensive”
March 16, 1968 “My Lai Massacre”
STAGE 4
“Vietnamization”
US troop strength decreases slowly
Bombing raids stepped up secretly (Cambodia,
Laos)
Impacts of the Vietnam War
 There are two key results from the Vietnam war that
impacted the country, for better or for worse:
1
2
It brought the country together, merging
North Vietnam and South Vietnam in 1975,
creating a socialist country
It set the background for the 1986 Doi Moi
Policy – reform policy that made Vietnam a
“socialist-oriented market economy”
Historical Timeline
~1975
Informal
Sector
Early
Vietnam
French
Colonization
~1975
1986
Vietnam
War
Doi Moi
Policy
1990~
Rapid Industrialization
and
Urbanization
Impacts on Environment
1990~
Industrialization
and
Urbanization
 Severe pollution of air,
water and soils
 Industrial wastes
dumped into rivers
 No treatment of waste
water before discharge
into rivers
 Lack of implementation
of environmental laws
and regulations
Environmental Issues
 Economic growth created a number o environmental
challenges for the government
 A decade of fast economic growth has lef to
environmental neglect
 Conflict is growing between the goal of continued
high economic growth and the environment
degradation affecting livelihoods, public health and
sustainable development.
Emerging Problems
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Vietnam’s population has increased more than 3 times
since 1950 – a real pressure on resources.
The growth of urban centers has been accompanied
with pollution from vehicles emissions (internal
migration)
Inadequate wastewater treatment, causing serious
health problems from bacteriological contamination.
Climate change presents risks for Vietnam, including
the possibility of a sea level rise which might alter the
seasonal flow through the Mekong Delta and salinate
rice fields.
Emerging Problems
Industrial
Enterprises
Economic
Activities
Economic
growth and
development
Agriculture and
Aquaculture
Air
Water
Soil
Wastewater
Emissions
Etc.
Environmental Issues
 Environmental problems now impacting economic
growth: human health and well-being; polluting air,
water and soils; reducing agricultural productivity;
and depleting natural resources.
 Good national environmental laws and regulations
are not implemented properly at the local level
 Growing decentralization but weak capacity and
institutions at the local level can increase
environmental and social problems
Wastewater and River Pollution
This is a canal connected to Vam Co Dong
river, (one of major river system in the South
of
Vietnam) polluted by waste water from food
processing companies located by the river,
water is not running any more.
One of the most polluted canals (Co
Bac canal) in Soc Trang province (in
Mekong delta)
Urban Situation: Ho Chi Minh
Geographical location: iIt is
situated in the South of Vietnam, at
downstream section of the Dong NaiSai Gon river system.
Main economic activities: industry,
commerce, services.
24 districts occupy 78.97% of the total
area . 1.7 million people living in these
districts , accounting to 32% of the
City population
Total length of canals and rivers: 795.5
km.
Urban Situation: Ho Chi Minh
MAJOR
POLLUTION
SOURCES
IN HO CHI
MINH CITY
28,753 medium/small scale
industries within residential
zones
Residential areas without
adequate environmental
infrastructure
Construction activities
14 IPs and EPZs
Transportation of
2,200,000 motocycles and
230,000 4-wheel vehicles
(2.300 buses only)
Framework for Environmental Management
Institutional arrangements
• In August 2002, the Government established a new Ministry in charge
of environmental issues - Ministry of Natural Resources and
Environment (MONRE);
• People’s Committees (at city/provincial levels) implementing
environmental management activities under the direction of MONRE
and other relating ministries, with the support of Department of Natural
Resources and Environment (DONRE);
• Ho Chi Minh city DONRE has Environmental Management Division,
Solid Waste Management Division are in charged for environmental
protection activities; Environmental Protection Agency (HEPA- WW Fee
collection Division (8 staffs) is in charge for wastewater fee collection
duty.
History – Environmental Institutions
1970s
State Committee for Science and Technology with Department of baseline survey and studies.
1983
Ministry of Science and Technology (MOSTE) with Dept. of environmental baseline & studies.
1984
MOST Dept. of Natural and Environment (in English) – 12 staff
1985
DNRE Five year national research program for environmental studies (20 projects).
1990
National Sustainable Development Conference – Proposal to establish MONRE
(Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment)
1993
Proposal to establish a Ministry of Environment and national environment council submitted
to government
1994
MOSTE and National Environment Protection Agency (NEPA) established.
1995-8 DOSTEs established at provincial level
2002
MONRE established at (NEPA divided into three organization with MONRE)
2003-5 64 DONREs established – 90% with environment divisions.
2003-5 333 District NRE divisions established, and 10,000 communal NRE staff.
(NRE: Natural Resources and Environment)
Legal Instruments in Vietnam
• “Laws” and “Codes” are passed by the National
Assembly;
• “Resolutions” and “Ordinances” are passed by the
Standing Committee of the National Assembly;
• “Government Decrees” are passed by the Prime
Minister or the Vice Prime Minister;
• “Resolutions”, “Circulars”, “Directives” and
“Ordinances” are passed by the relevant Minister; and
• “Regulations” are passed by local/provincial
governments.
Environmental policy of Vietnam
• Law on Environmental Protection 2005.
• (1993: first general Law on Environmental
Protection)
• National Strategy for environmental protection
until 2010 with vision toward 2020 – signed by
Prime Minister on 02/12/2003.
• Directive 41/CT-TW of the Politburo of Vietnam
Communist Party 2005.
• Decree 67/2003/ND-CP on wastewater charge.
•
Law of Water Resources 1999.
•
Enforcement policies.
Environmental policy of Vietnam
• Further, specific laws and regulations to
“protect” the environment –
• Ensuring clean water and
environmental hygiene
• Environmental impact
assessment
• Mineral Law
• Water Resource Law
• Environmental monitoring.
Vietnam National Green Growth Strategy (VGGS)
 Approved on September 25th 2012 by the Prime Minister
 Overall objective of the VGGS – (Low carbon Development Strategy)

Green growth, as a means to achieve a low carbon economy and to enrich natural
capital, will become the principal direction in sustainable economic development;
reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and increased capability to absorb
greenhouse gas are gradually becoming essential indicators in social-economic
development.
 3 strategic tasks outlining the scope of the strategy
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Low Carbon Growth
Greening of Production
Greening of Lifestyles
 Overall supervision through the National Committee on Climate Change which is headed
by the Prime Minister
Green Growth Targets
The VGGS sets the following targets for GDP growth and GHG emission reductions:
 For the year 2020:
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GDP per capita is doubled compared to 2010
Reduce energy consumption per unit of GDP by 1.5 to 2% per year
Reduce intensity of greenhouse gas emissions per unit of GDP by 8-10% or double
the target with international support
 For the year 2030:
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Reduce total GHG emissions by at least 1% per year without and 2% with
international support.
Environmental degradation is addressed and natural capital stocks have been
improved while the access and use of clean and green technology is significantly
enhanced.
 In 2050, Viet Nam has mainstreamed Green Economic Development
Green Growth/Economy
Short-term
Negative
environmental
impacts and
challenges
Looking for
business
opportunities to
solve eco
problems
ECO
LIFESTYLES
Creating new
markets for
environmentally
friendly products
and services
Long-term
Green Growth Components
Green Products – low
impact on the
environment, high
impact on the economy
Green Technology producing less waste,
using less energy
GREEN
ECONOMY
Green Finance – new
criteria for loans and
investment
Green Lifestyles –
3Rs: use less, use it
again
Green Jobs – new
skills and qualifications
for a emerging future
Green Marketing –
using consumer
purchasing power to
save the environment
Key Challenges
 Moving from strategy development towards implementation:
Developing mechanisms for provincial and sectoral target setting requires
tools/mechanisms
 Criteria for green growth projects/ programs.
Assess investment requirements
 Sources of finance (domestic vs. external)
 Assessing what market based mechanisms are appropriate
 Promote private sector involvement
Work on development partner coordination:
 A coordination framework has been developed but needs to be rolled out
 Development partners have converging approaches which hampers coordination
Limited understanding at local level.
Despite significant identified win-win potential the upfront investment costs remain
significant for private sectors which demands new financing mechanism.
Uncertainty on climate finance and green climate funds limits mid – to longer term
commitments.
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Green Growth: Next Steps
 Roll out the 10 priority programs (including the financing)
 Design the VGGS Implementation Plan, obtain approval and
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roll out of the priority actions (second half of 2013) which
includes low carbon policy instruments.
Coordinate interested Development partners based on aid
effectiveness principles.
Building capacity for Climate Finance Task Force
At provincial – and sectoral level, awareness and understanding
remains limited requires additional capacity building
investments.
Develop an overall climate/green growth finance mechanism to
start working towards directly assessing the Green Climate
Fund.
Contact me …
Class website:
http://www.gdrc.info/iep
Prof. Hari Srinivas
Room: I-312
Tel: 079-565-7406
Email: [email protected]