linkages between agropreneurs and research organisations

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Transcript linkages between agropreneurs and research organisations

LINKAGES BETWEEN AGROPRENEURS AND
RESEARCH ORGANISATIONS ON RECENT
ADVANCES IN AGRICULTURE (WITH
EMPHASIS ON ORGANIC AGRICULTURE)
Eustace A Iyayi
Department of Animal Science
University of Ibadan
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………..Quotes……….
 “I know of no pursuit in which more real and
important services can be rendered to any country
than by improving its agriculture, its breed of
useful animals, and other branches of a
husbandman's cares.” George Washington
 “Farming looks mighty easy when your plow is a
pencil, and you're a thousand miles from the corn
field.” Dwight D. Eisenhower
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Lecture Outline
 Agriculture….then and now
 Comparative Data
 Our potential
 Value Chain…..Enough room for all!
 Advances
 Organic Agriculture globally, and in our country
 Problems of OA
 Models for solutions
 Conclusion
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Agriculture and GDP
 Agriculture is central to Nigeria’s economy. Used to
account for 40% of GDP and providing 60%
employment
 Within the last decade, it accounted for 51% of job
creation in Nigeria
 In the 1960s:




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Over 60% of global palm oil
30% of global groundnut exports
20-30% of global groundnut oil exports
15% of global cocoa
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Current status
21.1
Agriculture
54.4
Industries
24.5
Services
Figure 1. Sectoral contribution to the GDP
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1.62 0.26 0.54
Crop
Livestock
Forestry
18.7
Fishing
Figure 2. Contribution of Agricultural sub sectors
to the GDP
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Nigeria’s untapped Agric Potential
LAND
 165 Million
people,
projected to
grow to 470
Million by 2050
INTERNAL
MARKET
Agricultural
Potential
LABOUR
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 84 Million Ha of
Arable Land;
40% utilization
WATER
 279 Billion Cubic
Meters of Surface Water
Untapped irrigation
potential with 3 of the
8major river systems in
Africa.
 110 Million Youth in the work
force in 2020
 Low wages for agricultural
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intensification
9
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ADVANCES: TECHNOLOGIES THAT WILL
DRIVE AGRICULTURE IN THE COMING
DECADES
MANUAL
MACHINES
DIGITAL AND
PRECISION
 SENSORS
 FOOD
 AUTOMATION
 ENGINEERING
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 Sensors help agriculture by enabling real-time
traceability and diagnosis of crop, livestock and farm
machine states.
 Food may benefit directly from genetic tailoring and
potentially from producing meat directly in a lab.
 Automation will help agriculture via large-scale robotic
and microrobots to check and maintain crops at the
plant level.
 Engineering involves technologies that extend the
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reach of agriculture to new means, new places and new
areas of the economy. Of particular interest will be
synthetic biology, which allows efficiently
reprogramming unicellular life to make fuels,
byproducts accessible from organic chemistry and
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smart devices.
SENSORS
 Air & soil sensors: Fundamental additions to the automated
farm, these sensors would enable a real time understanding of
current farm, forest or body of water conditions.
 Equipment telematics: Allows mechanical devices such as
tractors to warn mechanics that a failure is likely to occur soon.
Intra-tractor communication can be used as a rudimentary "farm
swarm" platform.
 Livestock biometrics: Collars with GPS, RFID and biometrics
can automatically identify and relay vital information about the
livestock in real time.
 Crop sensors: Instead of prescribing field fertilization before
application, high-resolution crop sensors inform application
equipment of correct amounts needed. Optical sensors or
drones are able to identify crop health across the field (for
example, by using infra-red light).
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 Infrastructural health sensors: Can be used for
monitoring vibrations and material conditions in
buildings, bridges, factories, farms and other
infrastructure. Coupled with an intelligent network,
such sensors could feed crucial information back
to maintenance crews or robots.
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FOOD
 Genetically designed food: The creation of entirely new
strains of food animals and plants in order to better
address biological and physiological needs. A departure
from genetically modified food, genetically designed food
would be engineered from the ground up.
 In vitro meat: Also known as cultured meat or tube steak,
it is a flesh product that has never been part of a
complete, living animal. Several current research projects
are growing in vitro meat experimentally, although no
meat has yet been produced for public consumption.
 In ovo Feeding: Embryological nutrition of the chicks to
produce chickens that have been designed to have a
head start in various parameters
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AUTOMATION
 Variable rate swath control: Using an existing geolocation
technologies, future swath control could save on seed,
minerals, fertilizer and herbicides by reducing overlapping
inputs. By pre-computing the shape of the field where the
inputs are to be used, and by understanding the relative
productivity of different areas of the field, tractors or agbots
can procedurally apply inputs at variable rates throughout the
field.
 Rapid iteration selective breeding: The next generation of
selective breeding where the end-result is analyzed
quantitatively and improvements are suggested
algorithmically.
 Agricultural robots: Also known as agbots, these are used to
automate agricultural processes, such as harvesting, fruit
picking, ploughing, soil maintenance, weeding, planting,
irrigation, etc.
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AUTOMATION
 Precision agriculture: Farming management based
on observing (and responding to) intra-field
variations. With satellite imagery and advanced
sensors, farmers can optimize returns on inputs
while preserving resources at ever larger scales.
 Robotic farm swarms: The hypothetical
combination of dozens or hundreds of agricultural
robots with thousands of microscopic sensors,
which together would monitor, predict, cultivate
and extract crops from the land with practically no
human intervention. Small-scale implementations
are already on the horizon.
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ENGINEERING
 Closed ecological systems: Ecosystems that do not rely on
matter exchange outside the system. Such closed
ecosystems would theoretically transform waste products
into oxygen, food and water in order to support life-forms
inhabiting the system.
 Synthetic biology: Synthetic biology is about programming
biology using standardized parts. Includes the broad
redefinition and expansion of biotechnology, with the
ultimate goals of being able to design, build and remediate
engineered biological systems that process information,
manipulate chemicals, fabricate materials and structures,
produce energy, provide food, and maintain and enhance
human health and our environment.
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ENGINEERING
 Vertical farming: A natural extension of urban
agriculture, vertical farms would cultivate plant or
animal life within dedicated or mixed-use
skyscrapers in urban settings. Using techniques
similar to glass houses, vertical farms could
augment natural light using energy-efficient
lighting. The advantages are numerous, including
year-round crop production, protection from
weather, support urban food autonomy and
reduced transport costs.
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VERTICAL FARMING
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ORGANIC AGRICULTURE
 OA is a system of production that relies on
ecosystem management rather than external
agricultural inputs.
 Eliminates the use of synthetic inputs such as
synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, veterinary
medicines, genetically modified seeds and breeds,
preservatives, additives and irradiation
 A holistic production management system which
promotes and enhances agro-ecosystem health,
including biodiversity, biological cycles, and soil
biological activity
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20
18
Area under organic farming by Region
17.3
16
14
11.6
12
Million
Ha
10
8
6.8
6
4
2.2
2
1.3
0
Oceania
USA
Europe
Latin
America
Africa
Region
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14
Land area under organic farming in Nigeria
12
12
10
9.47
9.52
2011
2012
8.2
8
'000 Ha
6
4
3
3.2
3.1
2006
2007
2008
2
0
2009
2010
Year
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250
Land area under organic farming in Nigeria
vs Uganda & S Africa
231.2
200
150
'000 Ha
100
43.2
50
3
3.2
3.1
2006
2007
2008
8.2
12
9.47
9.52
2009
2010
2011
2012
0
S. Uganda
Africa
Source: FAOSTAT, 2014
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Contribution of Some Countries to the Global
Organic Market (billion USD)
4.22
USA
Germany
5.47
France
China
9.01
30.9
The global organic market is currently put at about $80 Billion
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Some agropreneur organizations and
stakeholders in Nigeria
1. Dara/Eurobridge Farm
Reputed as the pioneer organic farm in
Nigeria
Produces lemongrass, turmeric,
ginger, plantains and medicinal herbs
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2. Organic Agric Project in Tertiary
Institutions in Nigeria (OAPTIN)
Began pioneering work in 2004
Capacity building
Networking of researchers in OA
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3. Olusegun Obasanjo Centre for Organic Agric
Research and Development (OOCORD)
 Established 2007
 First of its kind
 Focuses on research and development in OA
 In collaboration with UI Agronomy scientists has
developed organic fertilizer
 With funding from MTN Foundation organic fertilizer
processing plants now established in Oyo and Ondo
states
 Products distributed with intervention of Nigeria
Network for Awareness and Action for Environment
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(NINAAFE)
4. Nigerian Organic Agriculture Networks
(NOAN)
Inspired by OOCORD in 2008
Mandate is to network OA organizations
in Nigeria (e.g. Organic Farmers
Association of Nigeria, Nigeria Go
Organic, Ibadan Go Organic, etc.)
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5. World Wide Opportunities on Organic
Farms (WWOOF)
A network of national organizations
Helps volunteers learn and live by OA
Operates by resource persons
demonstrating on organic farm projects
Hold conferences and seminars to
promote OA in Nigeria
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6. Ladoke Akintola University of
Technology, Ogbomoso (LAUTECH)
Organic Farm
First tertiary institution in Africa to
have an organic farm with the
European Union Certification
Produces ginger, turmeric, lemon
grass and cashew
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7. Yomex Organic Farm
16-acre farm land….all organic
Tomato
Cucumber
Vegetables
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Problems of production
 Lack of awareness
 Marketing output problems
 Shortage of biomass
 Inadequate supporting infrastructure
 Non-availability and High cost of in-puts
 Lack of appropriate OA policy
 Lack of financial support
 Inability to meet export demand
 Lack of quality standards for bio-manures
 Political and social factors
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PROBLEMS OF LINKAGES
Agropreneur
Researcher
Experimentation
Interphase
(difficult to achieve)
Agropreneur
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Researcher
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At the Interphase...Problems
 Knowledge not
codified
 Not separable from
production
 Affected by
geography, culture
and society
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 Knowledge is often
generic
 Knowledge is
codified
 Knowledge is
quantified
 Apply quality control
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Interphase experimentation
Is not easy to achieve because of
Formal Research Transfer of
Technology Paradigm.
Seeks to identify a
range of useful
technology options to
be shared with other
interested farmers who
may continue to
experiment and
share new knowledge
informally through
conversation and
practice
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This presumes that the
Best Technology for
a particular
Commodity or factor
be identified,
Multiplied and disseminated
through agribusiness
and/or
extension services
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SOLVING THE PROBLEM
Farmers Participatory Research
Farmers First
 Farmers are not the problem
 But they are meant to adopt
inappropriate technology
 Appropriate Technology has
to be created for small scale
agropreneurs
1.
 Farmers participation will
enhance efficiency of identified
solutions and facilitate their adoption
 Farmers are active proposers of key
research
 Development of capacity at level of
farmer
2.
‘Client-driven’ concept (devolves to
farmers a responsibility for adaptive
Testing). Consumer preference has
to be captured in initial research plan
Key Elements
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SOLVING THE PROBLEM
Education, Research and Extension
Conflicting social, environmental and
economic goals of the different interest
groups
Consumer
Agropreneur
Researcher
Interphase for
sustainability
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Sustainable production
Consumer
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SOLVING THE PROBLEM
Four modes of participation
 Contractual: Researcher is all powerful
 Consultative: Key decisions with researcher
but agropreneur is consulted on problem ID
and priority setting
 Collaborative: 50/50 Researcher/Agropreneur
in everything
 Collegiate: Agropreneur has the greater power
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COLLABORATION FOR
SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION
LAB
BASIC RESEARCH
EXPTAL
PLOT
RES
STATION
&
EXPTAL
FARMS
COMMERCIAL
FARMS
APPLIED RESEARCH
ON-FARM RESEARCH
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Benefits of OA
 In UK and Ireland OA farms employed more
workers than conventional farms (EJF, 2007)
 With 20% of farms being organic it is predicted that
6-19% more farming jobs can be created
 Safer environment
 Diversification of economy and agricultural sector
 Attracts higher price premiums
 Food from OA is held by consumers to be healthier
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Potential for OA in Nigeria
 Total cultivable land is about 61 million ha
(66% of total land area)
 Untapped land resources is about 28 million
ha
 Variations in agro-climatic conditions
 60-70% of Nigerian farmers are subsistence
farmers and produce uncertified organic
products. Their production can be
standardized
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 Conversion of existing plantations and orchards
 Hydro agricultural practice in valleys along river
networks under River Basin Development
Authority
 Products from plants in the wild e.g. shea butter,
gum arabic, berries, nut, honey, snails and
mushrooms
 OA curriculum / AU efforts
 The MDG Goals 1 (eradicate extreme hunger and
poverty), 7 (ensure environmental sustainability)
and 8 (develop a global partnership for
development)
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Manure production
Type of
Animal
Weight
(kg)
Manure
(kg/d)
Manure Nitrogen
Tons/ye Kg/year
ar
Phosph
ate
kg/year
Potash
Kg/year
Sulfur
Kg/year
Dairy
cattle
230
19.5
7.1
11.4
11.4
27.3
2.27
Beef
cattle
340
20.5
7.5
15.9
18.1
29.6
2.27
70
4.5
1.6
2.27
2.27
6.82
2.27
Sow and
litter
170
10.2
3.7
6.81
4.55
13.6
2.27
Layers
1.8
0.09
0.035
0.23
0.23
0.16
0.023
Broilers
1.0
0.06
0.023
0.16
0.16
0.11
0.023
GrowingFinishing
Swine
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Conclusion
 Awareness should be BIG
 Clear policy on OA urgently needed
 We need to think outside the box
 Best practices for local, regional and
international markets
 AU support for OA should be a platform for
national framework/strategies
 In-put provision and financial support
 Collaboration at continental level
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THANK YOU FOR YOUR
ATTENTION
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