Global Sustainability - University of California, Santa Cruz

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Transcript Global Sustainability - University of California, Santa Cruz

Global Sustainability
Week 8 Monday
Ben Crow
Turning points
European environmental plans
Waste = Food
North or South?
Global Sustainability alternatives
• What images do you have of industry?
Meanings of industry
1. Not agriculture (residual)
2. Manufacturing, mining, energy
production (statistical)
3. Productivity - industrialization as
increased productivity of human work
Centrality of industry
• Historical: Capitalist industrialization
separates modernity from all previous history
• Contemporary industry dictates:
– Patterns of accumulation (who gets rich, who
– Employment and remuneration
– Consumption (advertising)
– Resource use
– Pollution
– Innovation and creativity (what products and
services are available)
Great debate
• Is it possible to develop green
alternatives within capitalism?
• What are the challenges?
– Pollution
– Resource limits
– Global warming
2 Turning points
Energy, water, air pollution
Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC)
What leads to turning points
Patterns (U shape vs N shape)
At what level of GDP/person do/might
they occur
Film extract
• The next industrial revolution: William
McDonough, Michael Braungart and the
birth of the sustainable economy
• DVD 1553 in McHenry Film and Media
Dutch Environmental Plan
• Main goals
– Closing substance cycles
– Conserving energy and using cleaner energy
– Promoting high quality production processes
• Overall targets for emissions reduction
implemented through voluntary agreements
between government and industrial sectors.
• 70 agreements - fair degree of success.
• But will take decades.
5 North or South
• Capitalist industry develops in
phases/paradigms (craft, Fordism,
• Succeeding phases greener
• New phases/paradigms of production may
incorporate larger set of changes (production,
consumption, accumulation)
• Resistance in North and opportunities in
newly industrializing countries.
Phases of Industrialization
Sustainable industrialization
Wallace route 1. industrial transformation in North requires
both technological change and
transformation of firms, institutions,
production systems
2. New paradigms (institutions, production
systems) more likely to emerge in nonindustrialized economies
New paradigm in the South?
• Environmental movements in South
lead to environmental plan
• Global corporations recognize need to
invest in that country (large market)
• To do so, they have to follow plan goals
6 Other global routes
1. Rio de Janiero 1992 UNCED
Follow the West, assumed - global south must
acquire discrete envtal technologies; new
resources (aid) provided by West
But, environmental improvements achieved through
efficiency/organization improvements, not endof-pipe technologies. N cannot fund
industrialization of South
Routes to sustainability
Deep Green
Materialism and western society seen as root
cause of env’tal destruction. Look to preindustrial communities for models,
oppose western economic
Lessons from Cuba
• Collapse of USSR at end Cold War cut
trade, energy, aid to Cuba forcing
– Environmental limits force adoption (like
Cuba) of sustainable options