Home Vegetable Garden - CTAE Resource Network

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Transcript Home Vegetable Garden - CTAE Resource Network

Arboricultural
site analysis & preparation
“The best friend on earth of man is the tree.
When we use the tree respectfully and
economically, we have one of the greatest
resources of the earth”
Frank Lloyd Wright
Prepared by
Dr. Teri Hamlin
Georgia Department of Education
For the Georgia Agricultural Education
Curriculum Office
May, 2002
Trees
• Beautify our surroundings
– Offer a wide range of forms, textures, seasonal
color
– Define our outdoor space, frames a view
– One acre of forest absorbs 6 tons of carbon
dioxide & puts out 4 tons of oxygen (enough
to meet annual needs of 18 people)
• Save Energy
– Net cooling effect of a young,
healthy tree is equivalent to 10
room size air conditioners operating
20 hours a day.
– Properly placed trees around
building can reduce air conditioning
needs by 30% & can save 20 % in
energy used in heating
• Increase property values
– Trees planted around existing home
can boost market value 6-7 %
– Healthy mature trees add an
average of 10% to a property’s
value
Selecting the Right Place
for the Right Tree
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Evaluating site attributes
Potential site modifications
Tree Management Capabilities
Desirable Tree Attributes
Selection of Appropriate Tree
Hardiness Zone
Above the Ground
SITE ANALYSIS
• Sun Exposure
– Full sun
– Part sun
– Part shade
– Shade
Above the Ground
SITE ANALYSIS
• Slope Exposure
– Thin Bark Trees (Cherry, Plums,
Maples, Ash) planted on South & West
Slopes bark split from direct sun &
dry conditions
• Coat trunks with white latex or truck
wraps to reflect light
Above the Ground
SITE ANALYSIS
• Wind
– increases the amount of water
loss from a tree
– big problem if root space is
limited or poorly drained soil
(lack of root development)
– Select a species tolerant of
drought
• Overhead Wires
– Cost utility companies (ultimately us) more than 1
billion dollars to trim tree branches
Above the Ground
SITE ANALYSIS
• Buildings
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one-sided, unbalanced root system
compact, clay soil shallow root system
hazardous conditions as tree matures
Select:
• Tree with open or narrow canopy
• Small to Medium size trees
• Plant a grove if canopy of shade is desired
Below the Ground
SITE ANALYSIS
• Soil Texture
• Soil pH & Fertility
• Drainage
• Underground obstacles to root
growth
• Appreciate how far roots can
extend
• A. Because roots need oxygen, they
don’t grow well in compacted clay soil
• B. Framework of major roots lies 8-12
inches below the surface
• C. Roots often grow outward to a
diameter one two times the height of
the tree
Clay Soil
vs.
• pH
• Texture
• Well
Drained
• Fertile
Good Soil
Soil pH
• pH governs the availability of nutrients
& activity level of microorganisms
pH Test
pH
• Most Trees can grow in a soil pH 5.0 -
7.0
• Low pH < than 5.0 (acidic soil)
– Dolomite or Limestone
• High pH > 7.0 (alkaline soil)
– Ammonium sulfate , Aluminum sulfate,
Sulfuric acid
Soil Texture
A soil factor that limits tree growth
• Fine Texture Clay
– compact
– poorly drained
– low oxygen
• # 1 cause of tree decline in North
Georgia
Test Soil Drainage
Dig & Fill with water several 12” deep holes
Good Drainage: water drains in 2 hours
Fair Drainage: water drains in several hours
Poor Drainage: 8-10 hours water still there
Compact Soil
• Select Wet-Site Tolerant Trees
– American Hornbeam, Sweet Gum, Sumac,
Redbuds, Bald Cypress, Weeping Willow,
River birch, Red & Silver Maple, Sawtooth,
Water & Willow Oak, Sweetbay Magnolia,
Loblolly Pine
• Avoid Tree with Aggressive Root
Systems
• form surface roots which disturb mowing,
sidewalks, etc…
• Red & Silver Maple, Beech, Ash, Walnut,
Sweetgum, Popular, Oak, Weeping Willow, Pecan
Improving Drainage
Before
Planting
• Area should be
turned and dug
to a minimum
depth of 12
inches and
minimum width
of 2x the canopy
Organic Materials Improve
Drainage mixed at least top 12” of area
• Decomposed
– Animal Manure
– Bark
– Peat Moss
• Grass Clippings
– Leaves
– Wood Chips
– Sewage Sludge
What makes a difference? 50 lbs per 100 sq ft
Compost
Elevate Beds
Increase drainage
Decrease soil compaction
30% great growth
Thoroughly mix amendments with native soil
Break subsoil and hardpans
Improve Soil Compaction
• After Establishment
– Coring Machine
– Verti-Drain / Vertical Mulching
• (dig 2-3’ deep trenches out from tree & refill
with soil)
– Pitch fork
– Gypsum applications
• (if compaction caused by sodium saturated
exchange in soil)
Newly developed sites
• Plan before construction begins
• Don’t allow debris to be buried
• Work with contractors to prevent
excessive soil compaction in future
landscape areas
Tree Selection
• Determine Max Tree Size at Planting
– Irrigation only during establishment
• Small size nursery stock w/ small tops
– Allows roots to come into balance with tree soon
after planting
• Drought - tolerant trees
– (Redbud, Eastern Red Cedar, Lacebark Elm, Crape
Myrtle, Ginkgo, Sumac, Golden-rain tree, Sycamore,
Live, Chestnut & Sawtooth Oak, Locust)
– Irrigation regularly
• Any tree - Any size
Desirable Tree Attributes
• Mature size
– Large trees provide shade to large open
spaces
– Medium trees shade on buildings
– Small trees good for next to building, deck,
patio provide little shade
• showy trunks, fruits, foliage, flowers
• Longevity
– Large trees live longer than small trees
Desirable Tree Attributes
Match Tree Form to Function
Desirable Tree Attributes
• Canopy Density
– denser canopy = more shade, better screen,
less noise
• Foliage
– deciduous versus evergreen
• Growth Rate
– fast versus slow
• Wood Strength
– brittle wood, narrow/wood crotches
Desirable Tree Attributes
• Insect & Disease Resistant
• New Varieties
– Kousa Dogwood
– Crape Myrtle
• Disease Resistant (Apalachee, Lipan,
Cherokee)
• Dwarf (less 3’) Petite Embers, Orchid,
Pinkie
– Chinese Fringe Tree
Tree Selection
• Weak crotches have bark included in
trunks
• Strong crotches are wider, without bark
Tree Selection
One Central Leader with branches evenly spaced
Tree Selection
Root Ball Defects
Effect Growth & Survival of
Tree
• Kinked roots
• Lack of roots
• Circling surface
roots
• Tree planted too
deep in field or
container cuts off
oxygen to roots &
trunk rot
• Root Rot
Tree Selection
Trunk Form
• Strong Trunks taper & thickest near ground
• Do not require stake to support them
Tree Selection
Trunk Form
Tree Selection
• Insects & Diseases
Avoid Trees with…
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Trunk injury and broken branches
Trunk Wrap
Smaller, Lighter than normal leaves
Dead tips (Die-back)
Stakes (tree should stand on its own)
Weeds in rootball
Arboriculture
planting & management
“No shade tree? Blame not the sun but
yourself.”
-Chinese Proverb
Tree establishment
• 3 most common causes of poor
tree establishment
– planting too deep
– under watering
– over watering
Fall
is the best time
of year to plant
roots continue to grow
and establish through
the winter months
Before Planting
• Water plants in thoroughly
• Bare root plants should be soaked 3-6
hours
Inspect & Tease Roots
• Remove burlap and fabric
containers
Planting
• If a tree is planted correctly, it will grow
twice as fast and live at least twice as
long as one that is incorrectly planted
• Well drained soils:
– top of root ball even with soil line
• Poorly drained soils:
– top of root ball slightly higher than
soil line
Planting
• Ideally dig or till an area the same depth
and approx. 5 x the diameter of the root
ball
Planting
• Backfilling with
loosened original soil
• Tamp lightly to
eliminate air pockets
• Add soil until even
with top of root ball
• Do not cover root ball
with soil
Planting
• Construct 1-2” soil berm at edge of
root ball to entrap irrigation water
• For newly planted trees, water
directly on root ball
• After establishment: remove berm
to encourage root growth
Transplanting
• Timing: Dormant stage of plant
• Keep as much soil around roots as
possible
• Don’t let the root ball dry out
• Handle plant by the ball, not the
trunk or branches
Mulch
A tree’s best friend
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Insulates soil
Retains moisture
Keeps weeds out
Prevents soil compaction
Reduces lawn mower / weedeater
damage
• Adds an aesthetic touch
Mulch
Mulch
• Max depth of 2-4”
• Do not touch the
trunk
• Mulch too deep can
lead to
– trunk & crown rot
– poor root ball
aeration
Ground Cloth under Mulch
???
Establishment Period
Irrigation
How much ? How often?
• During establishment
– Minimum of 1” of water per week
Water between
9 p.m. & 9 a.m.
Types of Irrigation
• Sprinkler
• Micro Sprinkler
• Drip Irrigation
Drip Irrigation
Uses 30-50% less water
Efficient and effective application
Fewer pest problems
Fewer weeds
No wind effects
Easily automated
Economic to install
Drip Irrigation
Drip Irrigation
Time Clock
Xeriscape
Water Management Practices
Staking
• Good - quality trees do not require
staking
• When to stake:
– Windy Location
– Top Heavy
– Plants 8’ or taller
– Weak Trunks
– Small Root Ball
– Evergreens
Types of Staking
Support weak
trunk
Root ball
anchorage
Staking
Staking
• Rubber straps are
nicely suited for
attaching stakes to
trunks
• Wire threaded through
hose can girdle plant if
left to long
• Never leave a plant
staked for more than
one growing season
Trunk Protection
• Little protection against insect & disease
• Some sun scald protection for thin bark
plants
• Uneven wraps w/exposed bark = temp
difference in trunk tissue
• Products :
– Paper Wrap
– Burlap
– Plastic
– White Latex Paint
Trunk Wraps
• If used, wrap from the bottom of
the tree toward the top
overlapping material
• Use electrical tape or flexible
adhesive versus string
Fertilizer
• Nitrogen
• Phosphorus
• Potassium
Landscape plants needs should be based on
Soil Sample
Forms of Slow-release
Nitrogen
Ammoniacal nitrogen
IBDU (Isobutylene diurea)
Sulfur-coated urea
Ureaformaldehyde
General Recommendation
Types of Fertilizer
• Sources:
– Inorganic
– Organic
• Formation:
– Dry / Granular
– Liquid
– Slow-release
How to Apply Fertilizer
Fertilizer Burn
When to Fertilizer
• Main Meal
– Slow Release ( 1 time per year)
– General Purpose (2-3 x per growing
season)
• Dessert
– During active growth (Spring-Summer)
– Liquid
• Soil drench
• Foliage Spray
Weed Management
• Mechanical
• Chemical
– Pre-emergent Herbicide
• Surflan, Treflan, Ronstar, Balan
– Post-emergent Herbicide
• Selective
– Kills grasses in shrubs & flowers (Poast)
– Kills broadleaf weeds in lawns (MSMA, Trimec)
• Non-Selective (Round up)
Arboriculture
Pruning
The appearance of a properly pruned
plant is like a good hair cut: hardly
noticeable at first glance.
Pruning
• Pruning at Planting:
– If quality plant stock,
pruning is not
necessary
• Do not prune to
compensate for root
loss
– latest research show
pruning does not help
overcome transplant
shock
Why Prune
• Removal of dead,
broken, diseased, or
insect-infested branches
• Maintain desired shape
& size
• Promote healthy,
vigorous growth
• Promote flowering &
fruiting
Pruning
Tools
Sharp
&
Sterile
Making the Cut
Directional Pruning
Making the Cut
Pruning Technique
Heading
Removes a part
of a shoot
Thinning
Removes the entire
shoot or limb
Rejuvenating
Restores
overgrown
shrubs
Cut all
branches 48” above
ground
Pruning Time
General Rule
• Plants that flower before May
– Prune after bloom
• Azalea, Dogwood, Forsythia, Redbud,
Rhododendron, Clematis, Saucer
Magnolia, Flowering Cherry, Climbing
roses
• Plants that flower after May
– Prune prior to spring growth
• Camellia, Chaste Tree, Crape Myrtle,
Nandina, Sweetshrub, Abelia, Sourwood,
Floribunda roses
North Georgia Pruning Time
January - March
• Broadleaf evergreen
• Needleaf evergreen
• Renewal Pruning
• Large Tree Limbs
A. Remove suckers
B. Remove low
growing branches
that interfere with
maintenance
practices
C. Remove upright
growing shoots or
waterspouts
D. Remove inward
growing branches
E. Remove branches
that compete with
a central leader
Pruning
Young Trees
Crown
Thinning
No more than 1/4 of
the living branches
should be removed
at one time
Crown
Raising
• Remove branch
from bottom to
provide clearance
• After pruning the
ratio of living
crown to total
tree height
should be at least
two-thirds
Crown
Reduction
Ratio of live crown to
total tree height should
be at least two-thirds
Never cut
main
branches of
tree back to
stubs
(Topping
Trees)
Large Limbs
A. Make partial cut
from underneath
B. Make a second cut
from above several
inches out
– allows the limb to fall
C. Complete job with
final cut just outside
the branch collar
Pruning Limbs
An Improper Cut
made through the
branch collar will
take 3x longer to
heal
Pruning Paint
“Placebo” - making the user feel good
Research shows that paint or wound dressings do not
stop decay nor cause the wound to close faster
Successful Pruning
Correct Tools
Correct Time
Correct Technique
Trees
• Add interest to the landscape
– Seasonal Color
– Foliage Texture and Form
• Hardy
– Temperature
– Drought
– Insect & Disease
• Easy to maintain
Fringe Tree
• Height: 10-15’
• Width: 8-10’
• May Frangrant
Blooms, fall
berries
• Sun- Semi sun
• Varieties :
“Grancy Gray beard, Chinese
Fringe Tree
Serviceberry
Crape Myrtle
• Height: 3-20’
• Width: 3-15’
• July - August
flowers, bark,
foliage
• Sun
• Varieties :disease
resistant
– Natchez, Muskogee,
Yuma, Lipan, Tonto,
Powhata, Sioux
Eastern
Redbud
• Height: 20-30’
• Width: 25-35’
• Early Spring
• Sun- Semi sun
• Varieties :
– Alba: white blooms
– Forest pansy:purple
leaves
– Silver Cloud: variegated
leaves
Deciduous Magnolia
• Height: 10-20’
• Width: 10-15’
• Early Spring
Blooms
• Sun
• Varieties :
Royal Star
American Yellowwood
• Height: 30-50’
• Width: 40-50’
• Bright Yellow in
Fall, Fragrant
flowers in
spring-early
summer
• Sun-part shade
• Varieties:
Rosea,
Sweetshade
Kousa Dogwood
• Height: 10-20’
• Width: 10-20’
• May Blooms, fall
berries
• Sun- Semi sun
• Varieties :Milky
way, Summer
Stars, Moonbean
Red-Osier Dogwood
• Height: 8-10’
• Width: 8-10’
• Spring Blooms, Fall Red
foliage, Winter interest
stems
• Sun- Semi sun
• Varieties : Cardinal,
Flaviramea, Golden Twig
Japanese
Maple
• Height: 2-20’
• Width: 4-20’
• Foliage RedPurple-Green
• Direct morning
sun & afternoon
shade
• Bloodgood, Beni
Hime, Crimson
Queen
Trident
Maple
• Height: 15-25’
• Width: 10-20’
• Multi stem trunk
• Sun- Semi sun
• Form and Fall
Foliage
Maples
Sourwood
• Height: 25-40’
• Width: 15-20’
• Good Fall Color,
Flowers in
summer
• Sun
Vitex Chaste Tree
• Height: 8-10’
• Width: 8-10’
• Summer Blooms
• Sun
• Varieties :
Latifolia, Alba
River Birch
• Height: 20-50’
• Width: 20-30’
• Multi stem and trunk
• Sun
• Dry to Wet Soil
• Varieties : “Heritage”
Flowering
Cherry
• Height: 15-20’
• Width: 15-25’
• Spring Blooms
• Sun
• Varieties :
• Kwanzan: ‘Royal
Burgandy’
• Yoshino: Shidare (weeps)
Ornamental Pear
• Height: 20-30’
• Width: 15-25’
• Spring Blooms
• Sun