Blackberry Tissue Analysis - The Southern Region Small

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Transcript Blackberry Tissue Analysis - The Southern Region Small

Caneberry Tissue Analysis
Monitoring Nutritional Status
in New Cultivars
Small Fruit Agent Training
August 4 and 5, 2009
Topics of Importance
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Cane berries background
Tissue samples
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How to collect
How to submit
Understanding the Report
New Developments
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Baseline
K Fertilization
Blackberry Acreage in NC
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1999: < 100 acres
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2002: about 150 acres
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2006: SunnyRidge Farm, Inc., indicated
desire to expand production by 5-700 A
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Blackberry and raspberry
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2009: about 400 acres
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Future growth still expected
Blackberries – Yum!!!
Blackberry (Rubus)
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Erect, semi-erect, trailing, semi-trailing
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Perennial root
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Biennial shoots called CANES
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Primocane is vegetative; 1st year growth (no flowers or
fruit)
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Floricane is reproductive; 2nd year growth flowers, fruits
then dies and is pruned out
• New a picture of cane types
New Cultivars
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Erect and semi-erect
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Thornless
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Different harvest times
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Navaho, Ouachita (others include
Apache, Chester, Hull, Triple Crown,
Arapaho, Chickasaw, Kiowa & Choctaw)
Cultivars suited to NC are currently being developed.
Cultivar Characteristics
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Navaho
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Erect
Univ. Arkansas
Thornless
Mid-late season
Med-high yield
Great postharvest
shelf life (PHSL)
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Ouachita
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Erect
Univ. Arkansas
Thornless
High yields
Big berries, great
flavor
Good PHSL
New Fertilization Practices
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Currently, growers are more likely to
spoon-feed soluble fertilizer through
drip tape in addition to broadcasting
or banding fertilizer.
Current Nitrogen Fertilizer
Recommendations
For mature blackberries: 60–80 lb N
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Spring: drip a total of 50 lb N
 15 lb N March 1
 10 lb N March 15, April 1, and April 15
 5 lb N early May
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Post harvest: apply remainder of N
Fall: no nitrogen; lime and nonnitrogenous fertilizers as needed
Lime & Fertilizer
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Lime to pH 6.0
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Pre-plant Apply P2O5 and K20
according to soil test
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Post-plant P2O5 and K20
Sufficiency Ranges from Clark
NABGA (1997)
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Developed for newer
cultivars
Collected from the
primocane in August
(post harvest)
30–60 most recently
mature leaves
Nitrogen
2.4–2.9%
Phosphorus
>0.15%
Potassium
1.0–2.0%
Calcium
>0.5%
Magnesium
>0.3%
Sulfur
>0.13%
Iron
>50 ppm
Manganese
>50 ppm
Zinc
>20 ppm
Copper
>7 ppm
Boron
30–50 ppm
Growers want big, sweet, berries
with great shelf life
Tissue analysis
is a tool that
will help
accomplish this
How to use Plant Tissue Analysis?
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Fine tune fertilization program by monitoring plant
nutrient uptake
Diagnose a problem; include a healthy and
unhealthy plant sample and soil samples from the
healthy and unhealthy area
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Corrective action consider climatic conditions, yield
potential, fertilization history, disease/insect pressure, even
economic return
Sample Type
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Predictive – monitor nutritional status
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Diagnostic – verify if problems are related
to poor nutritional status
Tissue Samples
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What
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How Many
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25-30 leaves
Special Considerations
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The most recent matured leaves from the primocanes
Paper bags; get them to the lab quickly
When
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Any time you suspect a nutritional problem (diagnostic)
Post harvest (predictive)
1
4
2
3
5
Sample ID
Crop Name (and Variety)
Growth Stage
Plant Part
Corresponding Samples
Plant Appearance
Other Tests
Growth Stages
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Early (E): pre bloom
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Bloom (B): full bloom
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Fruit (F): ripe or harvesting fruit
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Mature (M): 2 weeks post harvest
Sample ID
Crop Name (and Variety)
Growth Stage
Plant Part
S
Corresponding Samples
Plant Appearance
Other Tests
M U
E • Early: pre bloom
B • Bloom: full bloom
F • Fruit: ripe or harvesting fruit
M • Mature: 1-2 weeks post harvest
Indicate Corresponding samples here
Indicate Plant Appearance here
Interveinal yellowing
in top
There are no extra tests that
we recommend for caneberries
Interveinal yellowing
in top
http://www.ncagr.gov/agronomi/pdffiles/uplant.pdf
– Header
– Sample Information
– Results (chemical
analysis
– Interpretation Indices
– Recommendations
Report Header Information
Division name, ph # and web address
Grower (client) Name Report #
And Address
Farm ID (if needed)
Date report completed and printed
County where sample
Was collected
Laboratory Results
• For Cane berries
• Concentrations for 11 essential plant nutrients plus
sodium
• Macro nutrients (N P K Ca Mg S) in percent (%)
• Micro nutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn Cu, B) in ppm
Interpretation Indices
• Converts a nutrient concentration into an index
value
• Desired index ranges from 50-74
• Below 50 index reduced growth yield
• Above 74 index excess use of fertilizer and
potential toxicity
Range (min/max) of Nutrient Concentrations in
the Post Harvest Primocane Samples
Nutrient
% concentration
(baseline study)
Nitrogen
Phosphorus
Potassium
Calcium
Magnesium
Sulfur
2.0-3.3
0.13 – 0.26
0.5 – 1.3
0.3 – 1.0
0.25 – 0.50
0.13 – 0.20
Average Nutrient Concentrations in
the Post Harvest Primocane Samples
Nutrient
% concentration
(baseline study)
% concentration (Clark,
U. Ark, 1997)
2.4 – 2.9
2.4 – 2.9
Phosphorus
0.17 – 0.18
>0.15
Potassium
0.77 – 0.84
1.0 – 2.0
Calcium
0.51 – 0.68
>0.5
Magnesium
0.30 – 0.38
>0.3
Sulfur
0.15 – 0.15
>0.13
Nitrogen
BASELINE STUDY
Monitor nutrient concentrations in the primocane at M
(postharvest) to determine needs for the next season
and in the E (early), B (bloom), F (fruit) to aid in diagnosis of
nutritional problems
Cooperators:
Steve Dillon, Ben Knox, Charles Mitchell, Fred Smith all with
NCDA&CS
Gina Fernandez, Ron Gehl, Wayne Mitchem with NCSU
Josh Beam with Sunny Ridge
Commercial Growers and 3 Research Stations
Questions
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Brenda R. Cleveland
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NCDA&CS Agronomic Division
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Plant Waste Solution and Media Section
919.733.2655
[email protected]
www.ncagr.gov/agronomi/