ecology - benanbiology

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Transcript ecology - benanbiology

Organization of
• Organisms need
each other for
l.iving. They are
dependent on the
other organisms
and the
• 30-65 desibel: Konforsuzluk,
rahatsızlık, sıkılma duygusu,
kızgınlık, konsantrasyon ve uyku
65-90 desibel: Kalp atışının
değişimi, solunum hızlanması,
beyin basıncın azalması.
• 90-120 desibel: Metabolizmada
bozukluk, baş ağrısı.
• 120-140 desibel: İç kulakta
• 140 desibel ve üzeri: Kulak
zarının patlaması.
Otel yatak odası: 30,
Hastaneler: 35,
Yatak odası: 35,
Oturma odası: 60,
Mutfak, banyo: 70,
Motosiklet: 110,
Kabare müziği: 100,
Şehiriçi trafik: 65
There is a pathway of energy flow between
environment and organisms.
Primary consumer
Tertiary consumer
Page 200
• Autotrophs convert light energy into food(chemical
• Consumers use this chemical energy.
• Decomposers help matter to recycle in the system.
• The major energy source of all living things is the sun.
• Organisms are divided into 3 groups according to how
they get energy.
1. Autotrophs: All green plants and some bacteria are
autotrophs. They use CO2 and H2O and make organic
molecule(carbohydrate). Autotrophs are also called as
producers, because they produce organic molecules from
inorganic compounds. They can directly use sun light to
get their energy. They synthesize their own food by
• a. Photosynthetic autotrophs: Plants, bacteria
and algae that use sunlight energy to use CO2
and H2O to produce glucose and O2. They have
chlorophyll(prokaryotes) or
• b. Chemosynthetic autotrophs: They are all
bacteria that live in soil, which use oxidation of
inorganic compounds to get energy to make
glucose from CO2. They don’t have chlorophyll.
They don’t use sun light. Nitrification bacteria.
• 2. Heterotrophs: They can not synthesize their own food. They take
their food from other autotrophs or heterotrophs. They use this food
to get energy. Heterotrophs are called consumers.
Heterotrophs are also classified according to their feeding habits.
• A. Holozoic animals take in solid food.
Herbivores: only eat plants. Rabbits, cattle, elephants, sheep,
horse are herbivores.
Carnivores: only eat animals. Lions, tigers, hawks, wolves,
vultures are carnivores.
Omnivores: can eat animal and plants. Humans, bears and
rats are omnivores.
• B. Saprophytes: obtain energy from dead bodies of organisms. They
are also called decomposers. Many bacteria, fungi are decomposers.
They are very important in ecosystem for the recycling of the matter.
With the help of the decomposers minerals recycled back in the
c. The permanent relationship between two different
organisms for the purpose of feeding, shelter or protection
is called symbiosis.
1. Mutualism: Both of the organisms benefit from each other. Lichens(algae and
fungi live together), (N fixing bacteria and leguminosae plant)
of the
2. Commensalism: One organism benefits, the other one neither benefits nor
is harmed. (shark and small fishes)
of the
3. Parasitism: One organism benefits, the other is harmed. (tapeworms, lice)
of the
Plant parasites
• Holoparasites: they are completely dependent on
the host plant. rafflesia
• Hemiparasites: they are not completely dependent
on the host, they can be dependent on their host
for nutrition(organic matter) or for water needs.
Animal parasites
• Endoparasites: They live inside the body of the
host. Most of their organ systems degenerate.
• Exoparasites: They live on the outer layer(skin,
fur, hair) of the host.
3. Both autotroph and heterotroph organisms.
They live in soil that lack of nitrogen and to get
their nitrogen they kill flies and digest them
outside of their body then absorb the necessary
materials. Venus fly trap
What is Ecology?
• Ecology studies the relationships among
organisms and the interactions between
organisms and their environment.
• All organisms and their environment make up
the ECOSYSTEM. Within the ecosystem each
organism has its own life to live and role to play.
• Ecosystem is a certain area in which organisms
interact with each other and their environment.
• Within the Ecosystem, there are living and
nonliving factors. Page 191
• Biotic and abiotic factors effect:
– Distribution of organisms
– Size of the population
– Ability to reproduce
Climate( temperature, water amount, light)
• Climate influences natural vegetation. It determines the
type of plants and animals which can live in that area.
• Deserts, rain forests, temperate and arctic regions.
• Also some plants effect the climate of some area. In
our Back sea region forest make this area wetter. The
increase in rainfall , increases the humidity of that area.
• Man also increases the temperature of the world (global
• Oxygen determines the life in the ecosystem.
• Organisms need oxygen for respiration. If the
amount is insufficient, the organisms can die.
• Depth of the water,
• Height of the mountain
• Pollution also effects the amount of available
• Also plants effect the oxygen amount of the
• Carbondioxide is important for plants for
• It effects the plants directly and animals
• Also we change the amount of carbondioxide by
using fossil fuels.
• Plants directly need light for photosynthesis.
• Light effects the rate of photosynthesis and
indirectly it effects the animals.
• Also plants determine the amount of light
within the ecosystem. Huge trees make shadows
for small plants. They can prevent small plants
from taking direct sun light.
• The plants that live in shade have large leaf surface than the ones
that live in light.
• It effects plants directly. Because plants need soil
to take in minerals.
• It is important for anchorage, water, minerals
and air.
• Also plants help formation of soil. Plant roots
help rocks to breakdown easily.
• And most of the minerals in the soil come from
the decaying of dead organisms.
• pH shows the acidity. H ion concentration.
• Organisms need to keep their body pH
If the pH increases in the outside, it effects the
chemical reactions. For example: Acid rain
Also Man increases the pH of the environment as
a result of industry.
• Water is the major component of cells.
• Animals that live in land try to decrease their water loss.
They have furs,scales or protective layer (skin). Their
respiratory organs are inside their body.
• Plants that live in dry lands also try to decrease their
water loss.They have small leaves with cuticle, the
number of stoma is decreased and they are embedded
in the deeper layers. Most of them have hairs in leaves.
Predator: kill prey for food.
Prey : is the food of predators.
Their relationship determines the population size.
In these relationships organisms compete with each other.
In Competition, organisms fight for the same thing(food
or mate)
If the competition is among the organisms of same species
, it is intraspecific competition.( foxes)
If the competition is among the organisms of different
species, it is interspecific competition.(foxes and hawks)
• Grass
• Producer
The sequence by which energy, in the
form of food, passes from a plant to
an animal and then to other animals is
called a food chain.
The Energy gets less toward the
tertiary consumer level.
• In the food web there is a complex feeding relationship
of organisms.
• Each time an organism
feeds on the other, there
is a transfer of materials
and energy. But not all of
the energy pass to the
other one, Some of the
energy is lost as
• Because of this loss, the
energy flow within the
system is shown by a
The energy
available for the
next trophic level.
Ecological Effeciency
• How much of energy is actually available to
the next trophic level?
• Usually around 10% is available
• Why is it that we don’t see 6th order
• There is not enough energy available to
support consumers at this level.
• Each level in the system depends on the
previous one.
• If the number of the producers decreases,
number of the primary consumers decreases.
• If number of the primary consumers increases,
number of the secondary consumers increases
but the number of the producers decreases.
• Also some chemicals pass
with the food. If a
chemical is firstly seen in
producers, the amount of
the chemical increases
until the top consumer.
• The amount of dangerous
chemicals is less in first
levels but it increases until
the top.
Biomass pyramid
• Biomass shows the total living matter of a
trophic(feeding) level at a specific time.
• Biomass shows the dried organic mass of an
ecosystem. As the trophic level increases, the
biomass of each trophic level decreases .
• Energy is lost through the food chain. But it is
always replaced by the sun. But the matter
within the system is limited. We have to gain
back this matter. The amount of Carbon,
Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus is
not exhausted, They always recycle within the
system between organisms and environment.
• Recycling of materials prevents accumulation of
wastes and provides an unlimited resource for
• The water cycle is called the hydrologic cycle. In the
hydrologic cycle, water from oceans, lakes, swamps,
rivers, plants, and even you, can turn into water vapor.
Water vapor condenses into millions of tiny droplets
that form clouds. Clouds lose their water as rain or
snow, which is called precipitation. Precipitation is
either absorbed into the ground or runs off into rivers.
Water that was absorbed into the ground is taken up by
plants. Plants lose water from their surfaces as vapor
back into the atmosphere. Water that runs off into
rivers flows into ponds, lakes, or oceans where it
evaporates back into the atmosphere.
• The concentration of carbon in living matter (18%) is almost
100 times greater than its concentration in the earth (0.19%). So
living things extract carbon from their nonliving environment.
For life to continue, this carbon must be recycled.
Carbon exists in the nonliving environment as:
• carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere and dissolved in water
(forming HCO3−)
• carbonate rocks (limestone and coral = CaCO3)
• deposits of coal, petroleum, and natural gas derived from onceliving things
• dead organic matter, e.g., humus in the soil
Carbon enters the biotic world through the action of autotrophs.
• Carbon returns to the atmosphere and water by respiration (as
CO2) , burning , decay (producing CO2 if oxygen is present,
methane (CH4) if it is not.
• Increasing CO2 in the atmosphere absorbs the radiated
heat from the earth. This results in an inrease in the
temperature of the earth-global warming. This effect is
called “Greenhouse effect”.
• Careful monitoring of both ocean and land
• Many glaciers and ice sheets are receding.
• Woody shrubs are now growing in areas of northern
Alaska that 50 years ago were barren tundra.
• Many angiosperms in temperate climates are flowering
earlier in the spring than they used to.
• Many species of birds and butterflies are moving north
and breeding earlier in the spring.
Ozone problem
• Ozone shields the earth's surface from much of the
ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth from the sun.
• Ozone is a highly active form of oxygen (O3 rather
than O2). Ozone is made when a electric spark passes
through air, and this accounts for the characteristic
odor give off by some electrical motors.
• Ultraviolet rays can cause skin cancer, cataracts, and
may depress the immune system
 All life requires nitrogen-compounds, e.g., proteins and
nucleic acids.
• Plants must secure their nitrogen in "fixed" form, i.e.,
incorporated in compounds such as:
– nitrate ions (NO3−)
– ammonia (NH3)
– urea (NH2)2CO
• Animals secure their nitrogen (and all other)
compounds from plants (or animals that have fed on
• Nitrogen Fixation
• The nitrogen molecule (N2) is quite inert. To break it
apart so that its atoms can combine with other atoms
requires the input of substantial amounts of energy.
• Three processes are responsible for most of the
nitrogen fixation in the biosphere:
• atmospheric fixation by lightning
• biological fixation by certain microbes — alone or in a
symbiotic relationship with some plants and animals.
Some live in a symbiotic relationship with plants of the
legume family (e.g., soybeans, alfalfa).
• Decay
• The proteins made by plants enter and pass
through food webs just as carbohydrates do. At
each trophic level, their metabolism produces
organic nitrogen compounds that return to the
environment, chiefly in excretions.
Microorganisms of decay, break down the
molecules in excretions and dead organisms into
• Nitrification
• Ammonia can be taken up directly by plants —
usually through their roots. However, most of
the ammonia produced by decay is converted
into nitrates. This is accomplished in two steps:
• Bacteria of the genus Nitrosomonas oxidize
NH3 to nitrites (NO2−).
• Bacteria of the genus Nitrobacter oxidize the
nitrites to nitrates (NO3−).
• These two groups of autotrophic bacteria are
called nitrifying bacteria. Through their activities
(which supply them with all their energy needs),
nitrogen is made available to the roots of plants.
• Denitrification
• The three processes above remove nitrogen
from the atmosphere and pass it through
• Denitrification reduces nitrates to nitrogen gas,
thus replenishing the atmosphere.
• Once again, bacteria are the agents. They live
deep in soil and in aquatic sediments where
conditions are anaerobic.
• The smoke and fumes from burning fossil fuels rise into the
atmosphere and combine with the moisture in the air to form
acid rain. The main chemicals in air pollution that create acid
rain are sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Acid rain usually
forms high in the clouds where sulfur dioxide and nitrogen
oxides react with water, oxygen, and oxidants. This forms a
mild solution of sulfuric acid and nitric acid
• Phosphorus is an important element for living
organisms. They use it mainly in nucleic acids.
Plants as usual obtain phosphorus as phosphate
from soil. Soil becomes rich in phosphate by the
breakdown of rocks. Fertilizers mainly have
phosphate. Metabolic wastes and decaying help
formation of phosphate in soil. Man and
animals get their phosphate need by feeding.
Different pyramids
To produce a pyramid of
biomass the dry weight of
organisms in each level
present are calculated.
Pyramid of Number
• In this example the number of individuals at each
trophic level are shown. The length (or area to be more
accurate) of each bar is proportional to the number of
• This often produces an upright pyramid - but not always
In example A the pyramid is upright while in example B
(which shows a food chain from an ecosystem present on
a single tree) the number of individuals at the producer
level is relatively small (it is in fact one - the tree). This
latter pyramid is said to be inverted.
• Pyramids of biomass and energy show a
reduction with movement up the trophic levels
• The units for pyramids of biomass are: dry
weight of organic matter (per square metre)
• This shows the amount of energy (in kiloJoules
[kJ]) present at each trophic level
• The full units for a pyramid of energy are: kJ m2 year-1 (sometimes kcal m-2 year-1 where kcal
is a now obsolete measure of energy)
• The life in earth exists only in a zone called
biosphere .
• In the biosphere each organism lives in a
particular part which is called environment. This
particular part includes biotic and abiotic parts
and it is the habitat of that organism .
• Each individual has a niche. The niche includes
the feeding and reproductive behaviour of the
• The same kind of organisms(same species)
living in a certain area forms the population.
• The cats in Istanbul, the rabbits of İzmir,
• Roses of Isparta are the populations.
• The different populations within the same area
form the community.
• Animals of Istanbul,
• Flowering plants of Kayışdağı
page 204
• Within the ecosystem organisms and
populations interact with each other for feeding
and reproduction.
• Population sizes can change during interactions.
The size of a population is determined by two
main factors: birth/death rate and migration.
• If we show this by an equation:
The population size= ( birth rate + immigration) –
(death rate + emigration)
• Immigration is the flow of individuals to the
population and emigration is the flow of
individuals from the population.
• Birth rate, immigration, death rate and
emigration are affected by many factors.
– Catastrophic events-fire, floods, drought
– Predators
– Availability of food, water, light, heat and shelter
If there is enough food, space and other
needs(optimum), the population grows. This ideal
condition is called biotic potential.
• Some environmental factors controls the biotic potential,
these factors are called environmental resistance or
limiting factors. These limiting factors can be external:
• Availability of food
• Diseases
• Temperature
• Water
• Competition
• Oxygen
• Parasitism
• Predation
Or internal:
• the control of reproduction
• social behaviour
In most of the food webs, organisms have complex
relationships. They affect each other.
Predator: kill prey for food.
Prey : is the food of predators.
Their relationship determines the population size.
In these relationships organisms compete with each other.
In Competition, organisms fight for the same thing(food
or mate)
If the competition is among the organisms of same species
, it is intraspecific competition.( foxes)
If the competition is among the organisms of different
species, it is interspecific competition.(foxes and hawks)
• The maximum size of a population which is
supported by the environment is called carrying
capacity of the environment .
• Carrying capacity is determined by many factors
(prey, predator, food supply disease or climate)
Number of
• Rapidly growing
• Slowly growing
No growth
• Decreasing
• In the community some populations are more
important than the others.
• They are strong and influence the other
populations, they are called dominant species.
Pine forest, chestnut forest,
• If another species replaces the dominant species in the
community, this process is named as succession .
• The ecosystem has a stable condition. But if some
catastrophes occur, the environment changes (biotic or
abiotic factors). For example if a fire (or a volcanic
eruption)happens in an ecosystem, most of the trees,
shrubs and grass are destroyed with some insects and
animals. The stable condition changes and ecosystem
tries to regain this condition again. So new populations
and communities are structured and a new balance is
Primary and secondary succession:
• If the succession develops
from an area with no
community, it is called as
primary succession e.g.
on rock.
• If the succession develops
from an area that has been
prevented from changing
e.g. by agriculture, it is
called as secondary
Primary succession
Harmful effects of humans
Type of damage
Air pollution Damage to the
ozone layer
Acid rain
Main causes
Sulphur dioxide
and Nitrogen
Destruction of
Draining wet lands
Loss of
Eutrophication Run off of
Loss of habitat
Damage from
Damage from
Sewage and
Destruction of
Careless use of
insecticides and
Soil pollution, sound pollution, electromagnetic pollution(radiation)
1. What is erosion?
2. What can be done to prevent erosion?