Digestive System - missmayerhealthscience20

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Transcript Digestive System - missmayerhealthscience20

Digestive System
By: Madison, Amber and Rene
Grade: 10
Health Science 20
Major Function of The Digestive System
 The main function of the digestive system is to absorb and digest the food
we eat. It is divided into two major parts, the digestive tract and the
accessory organs.
Digestive Tract
 Also known as the alimentary canal, has two openings and is an ongoing
tube. The openings include the mouth and the anus and the ongoing tube
includes everything in between.
Accessory Organs
 Are the organs that help absorb the nutrients from the food and help digest
the food but are not part of the actual digestive tract.
Functions of The Organs in The
Digestive System
 Food begins its long journey through the system
in the mouth where the teeth chop up the food
into small pieces and saliva moistens the food to
be swallowed into the pharynx.
 The pharynx, also known as the throat, is a funnel
shaped tube connected to the back part of the
mouth that passes food from the mouth to the
esophagus. It has a dual purpose of letting air
through the nasal cavities so it contains a flap of
tissue that acts as a switch route of both the food
and air.
 The esophagus is a tube full of muscles that pushes
food from the pharynx into the stomach. At the
end of the esophagus is a muscular ring to close
the end of the esophagus and trap food in the
 The stomach is a muscular sac on the left side of
the abdominal cavity. It acts as a place for the
food to “wait” while the body digests large meals
properly. It also contains hydrochloric acid and
digestive enzymes that continue digestion of the
food while it stays in the stomach.
Stomach Continued
The stomach is crescent shaped and roughly the size of two fists put
together. It weighs around two pounds because of the amount of
muscles within the stomach, but weighs even more when filled with
food. It is located between esophagus and the first part of the small
intestine (or the duodenum). The inner layer is full of gastric folds that
allow the stomach to stretch after eating large meals and help to move
and clench the food for easier digestion. The stomach can be
separated into four different areas based on function and shape.
The Cardia
connects the esophagus and stomach and is a tube like section that
separates into the larger areas of the stomach.
The Esophageal
sphincter (located inside the cardia) is a band of muscle tissue that
tightens to hold the food and acid within the stomach.
The Fundus
located at the upper-most part of the stomach. Its purpose is to store
and to gather gas (which is a total normal part of digestion) and store
any extra food when needed.
The Pylorus
connects the stomach to the duodenum and within it is the pyloric
sphincter which controls the flow of semi digested food into the
Small Intestine
 The small intestine is a tube roughly 10 feet long
and 1 inch in diameter. It is located under the
stomach and takes up the most space in the
abdominal cavity. It is coiled like a hose and is
filled with many ridges and fold that are used for
to increase the absorption and digestion of
nutrients. By the time food leaves the small
intestine 90% of the nutrients has been extracted.
Liver & Gallbladder
 The liver is a triangular shaped organ on the right
of the stomach. Its function to the digestive system
is to produce bile and secrete it to the small
intestine. The gallbladder is a pear shaped organ
just to the back of the liver. Its function is to
recycle the bile from the small intestine to reuse it
in further digestion of other.
Large Intestine
 The large intestine is double the size of the small
intestine in diameter (2 ½ inches) but half as long
(at around 5 feet). It wraps around the small
intestine and is responsible to absorb water and
break down waste to further extract the nutrients
from it from the help of small bacteria. Food
ends its journey here in the large intestine going
out of the body through the anal canal.
Digestive System & Other Systems
 Circulatory System
 The circulatory system and the digestive system work very closely together
to help distribute the absorbed nutrients throughout the body.
 Respiratory System
 The respiratory system and the digestive system work together to help each
function and they both provide energy to body cells throughout the body.
Fun Facts
1. It takes roughly 7 seconds for food to travel trough the esophagus and
reach the stomach.
2. The stomach of an adult can hold up to 1.5 liters of food and the food stays
here for 2 to 3 hours.
3. The estimated surface area of the small intestine is 2,700 feet. (that’s over
half the size of a basketball court)
4. The whole digestive region is over 29 feet long. (starting at the month and
ending at the anus)
5. The stomach wall has 3 layers of muscles.
Colorectal Cancer
Colon cancer is a very infectious tumor growing
on the inner wall of the large intestine. It is the
third most common cancer diagnosed in
humans and also the second highest cause of
deaths due to cancer. But it is still very curable
if caught early. Some warning signs of colon
cancer could be changes it bowel patterns,
weight loss or fatigue but in the early stages of
the cancer there are almost no symptoms
which makes it that much harder to catch
which is why it is so high on the amount of
deaths. It is much more common in people
above the age of 50 so it is recommended that
anyone above this age gets a screening
colonoscopy once a year.
The survival rates for Colon Cancer is about 74%
for stage one tumors but down to only 6% with
stage four tumors.
Colon cancer develops in the digestive track in
the body so it becomes painful or hard to eat
and digesting becomes difficult.
The Stages of Cancer
 Stage Zero- Cancer is found in very little
proportion on the innermost lining of the
colon or rectum.
 Stage One- Cancer in only on the inner
wall of the rectum or colon.
 Stage Two- Cancer has spread into the
muscle layer of the rectum or colon.
 Stage Three- Cancer has spread into at
least one or more lymph nodes.
 Stage Four- Cancer has spread into
different parts of the body such as the
liver, lungs bones, etc. This is not
dependent on the tumor.
Diseases Continued
 Crohn’s Disease
 Crohn’s disease is a smaller part of a bigger group of digestive conditions
called “Inflammatory Bowel Disease”. (IBD)
 It most commonly affects the small intestine called the ileum but can affect
any part of your digestive track. This kind of disease attacked its own
healthy cells thinking they are invaders which means it is an autoimmune
 Some common symptoms are abdominal pain, diarrhea, rectal bleeding,
weight loss and fever.
 Some treatment options depend on the symptoms you may be showing
and could be pain relievers, immunosuppressant's or surgery.
 9 Common Digestive Conditions From Top to Bottom. (n.d.). Retrieved April 14,
2016, from http://www.everydayhealth.com/news/common-digestiveconditions-from-top-bottom/
 15 Fun Facts About the Digestive System - DigestiveSystemforKids.com. (n.d.).
Retrieved April 12, 2016, from http://digestivesystemforkids.com/15-fun-factsdigestive-system/
 Colon Cancer: Symptoms, Signs & Stages. (n.d.). Retrieved April 14, 2016, from
 Digestive System. (n.d.). Retrieved April 12, 2016, from
 Function of the Digestive System. (n.d.). Retrieved April 12, 2016, from
 How Do the Digestive & Respiratory Systems Work Together? (2013). Retrieved
April 12, 2016, from http://www.livestrong.com/article/302607-how-do-thedigestive-respiratory-systems-work-together/
 Taylor, T. (n.d.). Digestive System. Retrieved April 12, 2016, from