Biogeography ppt

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Transcript Biogeography ppt

Chapter 8
Why Were Introductions of New
Species into Europe So Popular
Long Ago?
• Biogeography:
– The large scale geographic pattern in the
distribution of species, and the causes and
history of this distribution
Wallace’s Realms: Biotic Provinces
• Realm:
– Major biogeographic regions of Earth that are based upon
fundamental features of the plants and animals found in those
• Taxa:
– Categories that identify groups of living organisms based
upon evolutionary relationships or similarity of
characteristics (ex: species, families, orders)
• Biotic Provinces:
– A geographical region (realm) inhabited by a characteristic
set of taxa, bounded by barriers that prevent the spread of
those distinctive kinds of life to other regions.
The main biogeographic realms for animals are based on
genetic factors .
The major vegetation realms are also based on genetic factors
• A biome is a kind of ecosystem. Similar
environments provide similar opportunities
for life and similar constraints.
– Rainforest
– Grasslands
– Desserts
Convergent Evolution
• The process by which species evolve in different places of
times and, although they have different genetic heritages,
develop similar external forms and structures as a result of
adaptation to similar environments
• Ex) shapes of sharks
Divergent Evolution
• Organisms with the same ancestral genetic heritage migrate
to different habitats and evolve into species with different
external forms and structures, but continue to use the same
type of habitats
• Ex) Ostrich
Geographic Patterns of Life within a Continent
Island Biogeography
• Theory of Island Biogeography
– Islands have fewer species than continents
– The smaller the island, the fewer the species
• Adaptive Radiation:
– The process that occurs when a species enters a new habitat that has
unoccupied niches and evolves into a group of new species, each
adapted to one of these niches.
• Ecological Island:
– An area that is biologically isolated so that a species occurring
within the area rarely mixes with any other population of the same
Earth’s Biomes
• The Earth has 17 major biomes , each with its own
characteristic dominant shapes and forms of life.
• Most biomes have been heavily altered by human
• People have introduced exotic species to new
habitats – sometimes creating benefits, often
creating problems
• Primary Rule: Unless there is a clear and good
reason to introduce an exotic species into a new
habitat, don’t do it.
17 Major Biomes
- treeless plains that occur in the harsh climates of low rainfall and low
average temperature
- two types: artic tundra and alpine tundra
- parts have permafrost: permanently frozen ground
Taiga or Boreal Forests
- includes the forests of the cold climates of high latitudes and high altitudes
- dominant life forms including moose and other large mammals, small
flowering plants and trees
Temperate Dedicious Forests
- occur in warmer climates that the boreal forest
Temperate Rainforest
- moderate temperatures, over 250 cm/year of rain
5. Temperate Woodlands
- Slightly drier climate that the deciduous forests
- fire is common and species adapt to it
6. Temperate Shrublands
- also called chaparral: miniature woodlands
7. Temperate Grasslands
- include many North American parries
8. Tropical Rain Forests
- high average temperature and rainfall
9. Tropical Seasonal Forest and Savannas
- high average temperature, low latitudes, abundant but seasonal rainfall
10. Deserts
- The driest region that vegetation can survive.
11. Wetlands
- Include freshwater swaps, ,marshes and bogs – all have standing water
12. Freshwaters
- Have phytoplankton and estuaries
13. Intertidal Areas
- Areas exposed to alternately to air during low tide and high tide
14. Open Ocean
- Also called the pelagic region
15. Bethos
- Bottom portion of the ocean
16. Upwellings
- Upward flows of ocean water
17. Hydrothermal Vents
- Occur in the deep ocean were plate tectonic processes create vents