4-1 The Role of Climate

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Transcript 4-1 The Role of Climate

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4-1 The Role of Climate
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4-1 The Role of Climate
What Is Climate?
What Is Climate?
Weather is the day-to-day condition of Earth's
atmosphere at a particular time and place.
Climate refers to the average year-after-year
conditions of temperature and precipitation in a
particular region.
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4-1 The Role of Climate
What Is Climate?
Climate is caused by:
• trapping of heat by the atmosphere
• latitude
• transport of heat by winds and ocean currents
• amount of precipitation
• shape and elevation of landmasses
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4-1 The Role of Climate
The Greenhouse Effect
How does the greenhouse effect
maintain the biosphere's temperature
range?
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4-1 The Role of Climate
The Greenhouse Effect
The Greenhouse Effect
Atmospheric gases that trap the heat
energy of sunlight and maintain Earth's
temperature range include:
• carbon dioxide
• methane
• water vapor
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4-1 The Role of Climate
The natural situation
in which heat is
retained in Earth’s
atmosphere by this
layer of gases is
called the
greenhouse effect.
The Greenhouse Effect
Sunlight
Some heat
escapes
into space
Greenhouse
gases trap
some heat
Atmosphere
Earth’s Surface
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4-1 The Role of Climate
The Effect of Latitude on Climate
The Effect of Latitude on Climate
Solar radiation strikes different parts of Earth’s
surface at an angle that varies throughout the year.
At the equator, energy from the sun strikes Earth
almost directly.
At the North and South Poles, the sun’s rays strike
Earth’s surface at a lower angle.
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4-1 The Role of Climate
The Effect of Latitude on Climate
What are Earth's three main climate
zones?
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4-1 The Role of Climate
The Effect of Latitude on Climate
As a result of differences in latitude
and thus the angle of heating, Earth
has three main climate zones:
• polar,
• temperate, and
• tropical
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4-1 The Role of Climate
The Effect of Latitude on Climate
Earth’s Main Climate Zones
Sunlight
90°N North Pole
Arctic Circle
Sunlight
Most direct sunlight
Polar
66.5°N
Temperate
Tropic of Cancer
23.5°N
Equator
0°
Tropic of Capricorn
Tropical
23.5°S
Sunlight
Temperate
Antarctic Circle
66.5°S
Sunlight
Polar
90°S South Pole
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The Effect of Latitude on Climate
The polar zones are cold areas where the sun's rays
strike Earth at a very low angle.
Polar zones are located in the areas around the
North and South poles, between 66.5° and 90°
North and South latitudes.
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The Effect of Latitude on Climate
The temperate zones sit between the polar zones
and the tropics.
Temperate zones are more affected by the changing
angle of the sun over the course of a year.
As a result, the climate in these zones ranges from
hot to cold, depending on the season.
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4-1 The Role of Climate
The Effect of Latitude on Climate
The tropical zone, or tropics, is near the equator,
between 23.5° North and 23.5° South latitudes.
The tropics receive direct or nearly direct sunlight
year-round, making the climate almost always warm.
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4-1 The Role of Climate
Heat Transport in the Biosphere
Heat Transport in the Biosphere
Unequal heating of Earth’s surface drives winds
and ocean currents, which transport heat
throughout the biosphere.
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4-1 The Role of Climate
Earth’s Winds
66.5°N
Heat Transport in the Biosphere
WINDS
Polar
Easterlies
Westerlies
Northeast Trade Winds
23.5°N
0° Equator
Southeast Trade Winds
Westerlies
23.5°S
66.5°S
Polar
Easterlies
Prevailing
winds
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Heat Transport in the Biosphere
Similar patterns of heating and cooling occur in
Earth’s oceans. Cold water near the poles sinks, then
flows parallel to the ocean bottom, and rises in
warmer regions.
Water is also moved at the surface by winds.
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4-1 The Role of Climate
Heat Transport in the Biosphere
The movement of the water creates ocean currents,
which transport heat energy throughout the
biosphere.
Surface ocean currents warm or cool the air above
them, affecting the weather and climate of nearby
landmasses.
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4-1 The Role of Climate
Ocean Currents
Heat Transport in the Biosphere
OCEAN CURRENTS
66.5°N
23.5°N
0°
Equator
23.5°S
Warm currents
Cold currents
66.5°S
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The Earth’s polar zones are cold because
a. they are never heated by the sun.
b. at the poles, the sun's rays are at a very low
angle.
c. the greenhouse effect does not occur at the
poles.
d. heat is transported from the poles to the
equator.
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The upward movement of warm air and the
downward movement of cool air creates
a. upwellings.
b. air currents.
c. ocean currents.
d. the greenhouse effect.
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Earth's temperature range is maintained by
a. the greenhouse effect.
b. climate zones.
c. ocean currents and winds.
d. latitude differences.
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Variation of temperature in the temperate zone
is due primarily to
a. air and ocean currents.
b. the greenhouse effect.
c. variation in the sun’s energy production.
d. latitude and season.
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The tropical zone is warm all year long because
a. the sun’s angle changes the most in that
part of Earth.
b. ocean water is warmest near the equator.
c. it receives direct or nearly direct sunlight
year-round.
d. landmasses in the tropic latitudes hold on to
heat.
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4-2 What Shapes an
Ecosystem?
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Biotic and Abiotic Factors
Biotic and Abiotic Factors
Ecosystems are influenced by a
combination of biological and physical
factors.
•
Biotic – biological factors
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Biotic and Abiotic Factors
Physical, or nonliving, factors that
shape ecosystems are called
abiotic factors.
Abiotic factors include:
•
temperature
•
precipitation
•
humidity
•
wind
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Biotic and Abiotic Factors
How do biotic and abiotic
factors influence an
ecosystem?
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The area where an organism
lives is called its habitat. A
habitat includes both biotic
and abiotic factors.
Biotic and Abiotic Factors
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The Niche
The Niche
A niche is the full range of physical
and biological conditions in which an
organism lives and the way in which the
organism uses those conditions.
No two species can share the same
niche in the same habitat
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Community Interactions
What interactions occur
within communities?
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Competition
Community Interactions
Competition occurs when organisms of
the same or different species attempt to
use an ecological resource in the same
place at the same time.
A resource is any necessity of life,
such as water, nutrients, light, food, or
space.
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Direct competition in nature
often results in a winner and
a loser—with the losing
organism failing to survive.
Community Interactions
The competitive exclusion
principle states that no two
species can occupy the
same niche in the same
habitat at the same time.
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The distribution of these
warblers avoids direct
competition, because each
species feeds in a different
part of the tree.
Community Interactions
Feeding height (m)
18
12
6
Cape May Warbler
Bay-Breasted
Warbler
Yellow-Rumped Warbler
0
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Predation
Community Interactions
An interaction in which one organism
captures and feeds on another organism
is called predation.
The organism that does the killing and
eating is called the predator, and the food
organism is the prey.
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Symbiosis
Community Interactions
Any relationship in which two species
live closely together is called symbiosis.
Symbiotic relationships include:
•
•
•
mutualism
commensalism
parasitism
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Mutualism: both species benefit from
the relationship.
Community Interactions
Commensalism: one member of the
association benefits and the other is
neither helped nor harmed.
Parasitism: one organism lives on or
inside another organism and harms it.
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Ecological Succession
What is ecological
succession?
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This series of predictable
changes that occurs in a
community over time is
called ecological succession.
Ecological Succession
Sometimes, an ecosystem
changes in response to an
abrupt disturbance.
At other times, change
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Primary Succession
Ecological Succession
On land, succession that occurs on
surfaces where no soil exists is called
primary succession. For example,
primary succession occurs on rock
surfaces formed after volcanoes erupt.
The first species to populate the area
are called pioneer species.
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In this example, a volcanic
eruption has destroyed the
previous ecosystem.
Ecological Succession
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The first organisms to
appear are lichens.
Ecological Succession
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Mosses soon appear, and
grasses take root in the thin
layer of soil.
Ecological Succession
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Eventually, tree seedlings
and shrubs sprout among
the plant community.
Ecological Succession
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Secondary Succession
Ecological Succession
Components of an ecosystem can be
changed by natural events, such as fires.
When the disturbance is over,
community interactions tend to restore the
ecosystem to its original condition through
secondary succession.
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4-2
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4-2
Which of the following is a
biotic factor in a bullfrog's
niche?
•
water
•
a heron
•
climate
•
day length
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4-2
An organism’s niche is
different from its habitat
because
• The niche does not include the place
where the organism lives.
• the niche includes all the conditions
under which the organism lives.
•
the niche includes only abiotic factors.
•
the niche includes only biotic factors.
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4-2
The attempt by organisms
of the same or different
species to use a resource at
the same time in the same
place is called
•
competition.
•
predation.
•
symbiosis.
•
cooperation.
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4-2
An association between
two species in which one
species benefits and the
other is neither helped nor
harmed is called
•
symbiosis.
•
mutualism.
•
commensalism.
•
parasitism.
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4-2
When a volcano erupts and
completely destroys an
ecosystem, the first species
to populate the area are
usually
•
grasses and shrubs.
•
pioneers such as lichens.
•
small plants such as mosses.
•
small animals such as rodents.
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4-3 Biomes
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Biomes
A biome is a complex of
terrestrial communities that
covers a large area and is
characterized by certain soil
and climate conditions and
particular assemblages of
plants and animals.
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Biomes
Variations in plants and animals help
different species survive under different
conditions in different biomes.
Plants and animals exhibit variations in
tolerance, or the ability to survive and
reproduce under conditions that differ from
their optimal conditions.
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Biomes and Climate
Biomes and Climate
The climate of a region is an important factor in
determining which organisms can survive there.
Within a biome, temperature and precipitation
can vary over small distances.
The climate in a small area that differs from the
climate around it is called a microclimate.
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Average Precipitation (mm)
Two
component
s of climate,
temperature
and
precipitatio
n,can be
summarized
in a graph
Average Temperature (°C)
Biomes and Climate
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The Major Biomes
The Major Biomes
The world's major biomes include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
tropical rain forest
tropical dry forest
tropical savanna
desert
temperate grassland
temperate woodland and shrubland
temperate forest
northwestern coniferous forest
boreal forest
tundra
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The Major Biomes
What are the unique
characteristics of the world's
major biomes?
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The Major Biomes
Biomes are defined by a unique
set of abiotic factors—
particularly climate—and a
characteristic assemblage of
plants and animals.
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The Major Biomes
60°N
30°N
0° Equator
30°S
60°S
Tropical rain forest
Temperate grassland
Temperate forest
Tropical dry forest
Desert
Tropical savanna
Temperate woodland
and shrubland
Mountains and
ice caps
Northwestern
coniferous forest
Boreal forest
(Taiga)
Tundra
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Tropical Rain Forest
The Major Biomes
Tropical rain forests are home to more
species than all other biomes combined.
The tops of tall trees, extending from
50 to 80 meters above the forest floor,
form a dense covering called a canopy.
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In the shade below the
canopy, a second layer of
shorter trees and vines
forms an understory.
The Major Biomes
Organic matter that falls to
the forest floor quickly
decomposes, and the
nutrients are recycled.
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Abiotic factors: hot and wet
year-round; thin, nutrientpoor soils
The Major Biomes
Dominant plants: broadleaved evergreen trees;
ferns; large woody vines and
climbing plants
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Dominant wildlife: sloths,
capybaras, jaguars,
anteaters, monkeys, toucans,
parrots, butterflies, beetles,
piranhas, caymans, boa
constrictors, and anacondas.
The Major Biomes
Geographic distribution:
parts of South and Central
America, Southeast Asia,
parts of Africa, southern
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Tropical Dry Forest
The Major Biomes
Tropical dry forests grow in places
where rainfall is highly seasonal rather
than year-round.
During the dry season, nearly all the
trees drop their leaves to conserve water.
A tree that sheds its leaves during a
particular season each year is called
deciduous.
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Abiotic factors: generally
warm year-round; alternating
wet and dry seasons; rich
soils subject to erosion
The Major Biomes
Dominant plants: tall,
deciduous trees; droughttolerant plants; aloes and
other succulents
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Dominant wildlife: tigers,
monkeys, elephants, Indian
rhinoceroses, hog deer,
great pied hornbills, pied
harriers, spot-billed pelicans,
termites, snakes and monitor
lizards
The Major Biomes
Geographic distribution:
parts of Africa, South and
Central America, Mexico,
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Tropical Savanna
The Major Biomes
Tropical savannas, or grasslands,
receive more rainfall than deserts but less
than tropical dry forests.
They are covered with grasses.
Compact soils, fairly frequent fires, and
the action of large animals prevent them
from becoming dry forest.
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Abiotic factors: warm
temperatures; seasonal
rainfall; compact soil;
frequent fires set by
lightning
The Major Biomes
Dominant plants: tall,
perennial grasses; droughttolerant and fire-resistant
trees or shrubs
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Dominant wildlife: lions,
leopards, cheetahs, hyenas,
jackals, aardvarks,
elephants, giraffes,
antelopes, zebras, baboons,
eagles, ostriches, weaver
birds, and storks
The Major Biomes
Geographic distribution:
large parts of eastern Africa,
southern Brazil, and northern
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Desert
The Major Biomes
All deserts are dry, defined as having
annual precipitation of less than 25
centimeters.
Deserts vary greatly, some undergoing
extreme temperature changes during the
course of a day.
The organisms in this biome can
tolerate extreme conditions.
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Abiotic factors: low
precipitation; variable
temperatures; soils rich in
minerals but poor in organic
material
The Major Biomes
Dominant plants: cacti and
other succulents; plants with
short growth cycles
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Dominant wildlife: mountain
lions, gray foxes, bobcats,
mule deer, pronghorn
antelopes, desert bighorn
sheep, kangaroo rats, bats,
owls, hawks, roadrunners,
ants, beetles, butterflies,
flies, wasps, tortoises,
rattlesnakes, and lizards
The Major Biomes
Geographic distribution:
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Temperate Grassland
The Major Biomes
Temperate grasslands are
characterized by a rich mix of grasses and
underlaid by fertile soils.
Periodic fires and heavy grazing by
large herbivores maintain the
characteristic plant community.
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Abiotic factors: warm to hot
summers; cold winters;
moderate, seasonal
precipitation; fertile soils;
occasional fires
The Major Biomes
Dominant plants: lush,
perennial grasses and herbs;
most are resistant to
drought, fire, and cold
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Dominant wildlife: coyotes,
badgers, pronghorn
antelopes, rabbits, prairie
dogs, introduced cattle,
hawks, owls, bobwhites,
prairie chickens, mountain
plovers, snakes, ants and
grasshoppers
The Major Biomes
Geographic distribution:
central Asia, North America,
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Temperate Woodland and
Shrubland
The Major Biomes
This biome is characterized by a
semiarid climate and mix of shrub
communities and open woodlands.
Large areas of grasses and wildflowers
are interspersed with oak trees.
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Communities that are
dominated by shrubs are
also known as chaparral.
The Major Biomes
The growth of dense, low
plants that contain
flammable oils makes fires a
constant threat.
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Abiotic factors: hot, dry
summers; cool, moist
winters; thin, nutrient-poor
soils; periodic fires
The Major Biomes
Dominant plants: woody
evergreen shrubs; herbs
that grow during winter and
die in summer
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Dominant wildlife: coyotes,
foxes, bobcats, mountain
lions, black-tailed deer,
rabbits, squirrels, hawks,
California quails, warblers,
lizards, snakes, and
butterflies
The Major Biomes
Geographic distribution:
western coasts of North and
South America, areas
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Temperate Forest
The Major Biomes
Temperate forests contain a mixture of
deciduous and coniferous trees.
Coniferous trees, or conifers, produce
seed-bearing cones and most have leaves
shaped like needles.
These forests have cold winters that
halt plant growth for several months.
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In autumn, the deciduous
trees shed their leaves.
The Major Biomes
Soils of temperate forests
are often rich in humus, a
material formed from
decaying leaves and other
organic matter that makes
soil fertile.
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Abiotic factors: cold to
moderate winters; warm
summers; year-round
precipitation; fertile soils
The Major Biomes
Dominant plants: broadleaf
deciduous trees; some
conifers; flowering shrubs;
herbs; a ground layer of
mosses and ferns
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Dominant wildlife: Deer,
black bears, bobcats,
squirrels, raccoons,
skunks, numerous
songbirds, turkeys
The Major Biomes
Geographic distribution:
eastern United States;
southeastern Canada; most
of Europe; and parts of
Japan, China, and Australia
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Northwestern Coniferous
Forest
The Major Biomes
Mild, moist air from the Pacific Ocean
provides abundant rainfall to this biome.
The forest is made up of a variety of
trees, including giant redwoods, spruce,
fir, hemlock, and dogwood.
Because of its lush vegetation, the
northwestern coniferous forest is
sometimes called a “temperate rain
forest.”
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Abiotic factors: mild
temperatures; abundant
precipitation during fall,
winter, and spring;
relatively cool, dry summer;
rocky, acidic soils
The Major Biomes
Dominant plants: Douglas
fir, Sitka spruce, western
hemlock, redwood
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Dominant wildlife: bears,
elk, deer, beavers, owls,
bobcats, and members of
the weasel family
The Major Biomes
Geographic distribution:
Pacific coast of
northwestern United States
and Canada, from northern
California to Alaska
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Boreal Forest
The Major Biomes
Dense evergreen forests of coniferous
trees are found along the northern edge of
the temperate zone.
These forests are called boreal forests,
or taiga.
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Winters are bitterly cold.
The Major Biomes
Summers are mild and long
enough to allow the ground
to thaw.
Boreal forests occur mostly
in the Northern Hemisphere.
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Abiotic factors: long, cold
winters; short, mild
summers; moderate
precipitation; high
humidity; acidic, nutrientpoor soils
The Major Biomes
Dominant plants: needleleaf
coniferous trees; some
broadleaf deciduous trees;
small, berry-bearing shrubs
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Dominant wildlife: lynxes,
timber wolves, members of
the weasel family, small
herbivorous mammals,
moose, beavers, songbirds,
and migratory birds
The Major Biomes
Geographic distribution:
North America, Asia, and
northern Europe
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Tundra
The Major Biomes
The tundra is characterized by
permafrost, a layer of permanently frozen
subsoil.
During the short, cool summer, the
ground thaws to a depth of a few
centimeters and becomes soggy and wet.
In winter, the topsoil freezes again.
Cold temperaturs, high winds, the short
growing season, and humus-poor soils
also limit plant height.
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Abiotic factors: strong
winds; low precipitation;
short and soggy summers;
long, cold, and dark
winters; poorly developed
soils; permafrost
The Major Biomes
Dominant plants: groundhugging plants such as
mosses, lichens, sedges,
and short grasses
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Dominant wildlife: birds,
mammals that can
withstand the harsh
conditions, migratory
waterfowl, shore birds,
musk ox, Arctic foxes,
caribou, lemmings and
other small rodents
The Major Biomes
Geographic distribution:
northern North America,
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Other Land Areas
Other Land Areas
Mountain ranges and polar icecaps do
not fit neatly into any of Earth’s major
biomes.
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Mountain Ranges
Other Land Areas
Abiotic and biotic conditions vary with
elevation.
Temperatures become colder as you
move from base to summit.
The amount of precipitation increases
as you move from base to summit.
Plants and animals also change,
adapting to the changing environment.
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Polar Ice Caps
Other Land Areas
The polar regions are cold all year
round.
In the north polar region, the Artic
Ocean is covered with sea ice and a thick
ice cap.
Dominant organisms include mosses,
lichens, polar bears, seals, insects, and
mites.
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In the south polar region,
Antarctica is covered by a
layer of ice nearly 5
kilometers thick in some
places.
Other Land Areas
The dominant wildlife
includes penguins and
marine mammals.
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4-3
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4-3
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4-3
When the climate in a small
region of a biome is
different from the overall
climate of the biome, the
region’s climate is called
•
tolerance.
•
a harsher climate.
•
a microclimate.
•
a local variation.
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4-3
The ability of an organism
to survive under conditions
that differ from its optimal
condition is called
•
niche.
•
tolerance.
•
variation.
•
succession.
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4-3
Which of the following
biomes is characterized by
less than 25 centimeters of
annual precipitation?
•
tropical savanna
•
desert
•
boreal forest
•
temperate grassland
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4-3
Which of the following
biomes is characterized by
a mixture of deciduous and
coniferous trees?
•
temperate woodland and shrubland
•
boreal forest
•
temperate forest
•
tropical dry forest
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4-3
Which of the following
biomes is characterized by
the presence of
permafrost?
•
boreal forest
•
temperate grassland
•
northwestern coniferous forest
•
tundra
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4-4 Aquatic Ecosystems
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Nearly three-fourths of the
Earth’s surface is covered
with water.
4-4 Aquatic Ecosystems
Almost all bodies of water
contain a wide variety of
communities governed by
biotic and abiotic factors
including light, nutrient
availability, and oxygen.
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What are the main factors
that govern aquatic
ecosystems?
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4-4 Aquatic Ecosystems
Aquatic ecosystems are
determined primarily by the
depth, flow, temperature, and
chemistry of the overlying
water.
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Aquatic ecosystems are
often grouped according to
the abiotic factors that affect
them.
4-4 Aquatic Ecosystems
The depth of water
determines the amount of
light that organisms receive.
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Water chemistry refers to the
amount of dissolved
chemicals on which life
depends.
4-4 Aquatic Ecosystems
Communities of organisms
found in shallow water close
to shore can be very different
from the communities that
occur away from shore in
deep water.
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Freshwater Ecosystems
What are the two types of
freshwater ecosystems?
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Freshwater Ecosystems
Freshwater Ecosystems
Freshwater ecosystems can be
divided into two main types:
•
flowing-water ecosystems
•
standing-water ecosystems
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Flowing-Water Ecosystems
Freshwater Ecosystems
Rivers, streams, creeks, and brooks
are freshwater ecosystems that flow over
land.
Organisms that live there are well
adapted to the rate of flow.
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Flowing-water ecosystems
originate in mountains or
hills.
Freshwater Ecosystems
Turbulent water near the
source has little plant life.
As the water flows downhill,
sediments build up and
enable plants to grow.
Downstream, water may
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Standing-Water
Ecosystems
Freshwater Ecosystems
Lakes and ponds are standing-water
ecosystems.
In addition to the net flow of water in
and out of these systems, there is usually
water circulating within them.
This circulation helps to distribute heat,
oxygen, and nutrients throughout the
ecosystem.
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Still waters provide habitats
for organisms such as
plankton.
Freshwater Ecosystems
Plankton is a general term
for free-floating organisms
that live in both freshwater
and saltwater environments.
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Unicellular algae, or
phytoplankton, are
supported by nutrients in the
water and form the base of
many aquatic food webs.
Freshwater Ecosystems
Zooplankton are unicellular
animals that feed on
phytoplankton.
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Freshwater Wetlands
Freshwater Ecosystems
A wetland is an ecosystem in which
water covers the soil or is present at or
near the surface of the soil at least part of
the year.
The water in wetlands may be flowing
or standing and fresh, salty, or brackish.
Many wetlands are productive
ecosystems that serve as breeding
grounds for many types of wildlife.
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The three main types of
freshwater wetlands are
bogs, marshes, and swamps.
Freshwater Ecosystems
Bogs are wetlands that
typically form in depressions
where water collects.
Marshes are shallow
wetlands along rivers.
In swamps, which often look
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Estuaries
Estuaries
Estuaries are wetlands formed where
rivers meet the sea.
Estuaries contain a mixture of fresh
and salt water, and are affected by the
ocean tides.
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Estuaries
Primary producers include
plants, algae, and bacteria.
In estuary food webs, most
primary production is not
consumed by herbivores.
Instead, much of that organic
material enters the food web
as detritus.
Detritus is made up of tiny
pieces of organic material
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Estuaries
Salt marshes are temperatezone estuaries dominated by
salt-tolerant grasses above
the low-tide line, and by
seagrasses under water.
Salt marshes occur in
estuaries along seacoasts in
the temperate zone.
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Estuaries
Mangrove swamps are
coastal wetlands that occur
in bays and estuaries across
tropical regions, including
southern Florida and Hawaii.
The dominant plants are salttolerant trees, called
mangroves, with seagrasses
common below the low-tide
line.
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Marine Ecosystems
Marine Ecosystems
The well-lit upper layer of the ocean is
known as the photic zone.
Algae and other producers can grow
only in this thin surface layer.
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Below the photic zone is the
aphotic zone, which is
permanently dark.
Marine Ecosystems
Chemosynthetic autotrophs
are the only producers that
can survive in the aphotic
zone.
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Marine Ecosystems
What are the characteristics of
the different marine zones?
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Marine Ecosystems
In addition to the division
between photic and photic
zones, marine biologists
divide the ocean into zones
based on the depth and
distance from shore:
•
the intertidal zone
•
the coastal ocean
•
the open ocean
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Marine Ecosystems
Land
200 m
1,000 m
Coastal
ocean
Open
ocean
Photic
zone
4,000 m
Aphotic
zone
6,000 m
Continental
shelf
Continental
slope
and continental
rise
Ocean
trench
10,000 m
Abyssal
plain
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Intertidal Zone
Marine Ecosystems
Organisms that live in the intertidal
zone are exposed to regular and extreme
changes in their surroundings.
Competition among organisms in the
rocky intertidal zone often leads to
zonation, the prominent arrangement of
organisms in a particular habitat in
horizontal bands.
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Marine Ecosystems
Coastal Ocean
The coastal ocean
extends from the low-tide
mark to the outer edge of the
continental shelf.
It falls within the photic
zone, and photosynthesis
occurs throughout its depth.
The coastal ocean is
often rich in plankton and
many other organisms.
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Marine Ecosystems
Kelp forests are
named for their
dominant
organism, a
giant brown
alga. Kelp
forests are one
of the most
productive
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Marine Ecosystems
Coral Reefs
Coral reefs, found in tropical coastal waters,
are named for the coral animals whose calcium
carbonate skeletons make up their primary
structure.
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Marine Ecosystems
Open Ocean
The open ocean, the oceanic zone, extends
from the edge of the continental shelf outward.
It is the largest marine zone.
Most of the photosynthetic activity on Earth
occurs in the photic zone of the open ocean by the
smallest producers.
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Benthic Zone
Marine Ecosystems
The ocean floor contains organisms
that live attached to or near the bottom.
These organisms are called benthos.
The ocean floor is called the benthic zone.
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4-4
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4-4
Which of the following
factors is important in
determining the type of
aquatic ecosystem found in
a specific area?
•
geographic location
•
amount of dissolved chemicals
•
the percentage of land covered
by water
•
the kinds of organisms in the water
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4-4
The two types of
freshwater ecosystems are
distinguished by whether or
not they have
• high oxygen content or low oxygen
content.
•
phytoplankton or zooplankton.
•
high temperature or low temperature.
•
flowing water or standing water.
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4-4
Coastal wetlands that are
widespread in tropical
regions such as southern
Florida and Hawaii are
known as
•
detritus.
•
bogs.
•
mangrove swamps.
•
benthos.
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4-4
Coral animals cannot grow
in water that
•
contains salt.
•
contains oxygen.
•
is cold.
•
receives sunlight.
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4-4
The zone that covers the
ocean floor is the
•
benthic zone.
•
abyssal plain.
•
continental shelf.
•
continental rise.
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