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Transcript ecology-notes-and

Environmental science
Prentice Hall Science Explorer
Green book with a butterfly on it.
Chapter 1, section 1, 2,3, and Chapter 2 section1
Definitions for the entire
Ecology section
Food web
Food chain
Energy flow
Solar energy
Chemical energy
Mechanical energy
Where does the energy
come from?
• The sun gives us 99% of all of our energy we use. We
call it solar energy.
• Solar energy :energy from the sun,
• What uses the solar energy? Producers
• Producer: is an organism that can make its own food.
Consumers eat producers.
• Mostly plants that create food through photosynthesis
• Photosynthesis : the process in which organisms use
water sunlight and CO2 to make their own food.
• Consumer: an organism that obtains energy by
feeding on other organisms.
Chapter 1 sec 1
• Everything on Earth lives in a habitat. Habitat:
an environment that provides the things the
organism needs to live, grow and reproduce.
• In any habitat there are two ways to classify
– Biotic
– abiotic
• Biotic: the living parts of a habitat
• Abiotic : are the nonliving parts of an
organisms habitat.
• What is an ecosystem?
• Ecosystem: the community of organisms that
live in a particular area, along with their
nonliving surroundings. The levels of an
ecosystem start with
– A single organism which belongs to a population
that includes other members of its species. The
population belongs to a community of different
species. The community and abiotic factors
together form an ecosystem
• Environment : all of the conditions
circumstances and influences that
surround and effect an organism.
– Environments dictate how and what can live
in an area.
– Each environment has a certain capacity: this
is the amount of living organisms that can live
in and survive off of the natural resources
available in a given area.
Adapting to the
• Natural selection: works like this;
individuals whose characteristics are best
suited for their own environment tend to
survive and produce offspring that are
better suited to survive better than others
of its kind, the offspring that inherit these
characteristics pass them on and so on, in
this way natural selection results in
• Adaptation: the behaviors and physical
characteristics that allow organisms to live
successfully in their environment. The
major obstacles that influence adaptation
is competition, predation, and symbiosis.
• Competition: the struggle between
organisms to survive as they attempt to
use the same limited resources.
Adaptation cont
• Predation: an interaction in which one organism
kills another for food.
• Predator: the organism that does the killing in the
predation interaction.
• Prey: the organism that is killed in the predation
• Symbiosis: a close relationship between two
species that benefits at least one of the species,
• Mutualism: a relationship between two species in
which both species benefit.
• Parasitism: involves one organism living on or
inside another organism and harming it.
Chapter 2 sec 1
• Food chains and food webs.
• Food chain: is a series of events in which
one organism eats another and obtains
• Food web: consist of many overlapping
food chains in and ecosystem.
Food chain
Food web
Energy pyramids
What they show
• Food chains, food webs, and energy
pyramids show that same thing in different
ways the flow of energy in an ecosystem.
• Energy flow: the flow of energy from one
trophic level to the next.
• In general only about 10% of the energy is
transfer to the next level, the most energy is
found at the bottom or the ________level,
then the next amount is found at the
_______level, the least amount of energy is
found at the _______level.
Where does this energy
• There is a loss of 90% of energy from level to level
where does it all go?
• Life function, like respiration, chemical energy ,
and mechanical energy. Living growing
• Respiration: The way a cell or organism takes in
oxygen uses it in chemical reaction and dispose
the byproduct as carbon dioxide.
• Chemical energy: the energy that an organism
gets when combing or braking down chemicals.
• Mechanical energy: kinetic or potential energy
associated with the motion or position of an object.
The energy roles
• There are three jobs in an ecosystem, you
are either a producer, consumer or
• Producers= plants= are the source of all the
food in an ecosystem
• Consumers= animals that eat plants and
other animals.
• Decomposers= bacteria molds and fungi=are
the recyclers of an ecosystem, returning the
waste back to the ecosystem.
Ecology quiz
• 1. How many level are in the energy
• 2. what are the three job in an ecosystem,
give examples of each.
• 3. what is the difference between a food
web and a food chain?
Quiz continued
• 4. what process do plants use to make
food, and how many things do they need
to make the food, and what are those
• 5. what is name given to plants in an
• 6. describe for me what does adaptation
Quiz end
• 7. what do food chains, food webs, and
energy pyramids have in common?
• 8.How much energy is passes from one level
to the next in a food pyramid, how much
energy is lost and where does it go?
• 9. what is the difference between mutualism,
parasitism, symbiosis?
• 10. draw a food web with at least 4 levels,
show the energy flow, and you must have at
least 10 organisms.