Vocabulary Words

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Transcript Vocabulary Words

Vocabulary Words
1.) Science: Ways to gather and organize
information about the natural world.
2.) Quantitative Data: Numerical recorded data.
3.) Qualitative Data: Data collected by using your
4.) Independent Variable: Variable that you control
during the experiment.
5.) Dependent Variable: The measurement or data
you take while doing the experiment.
Vocabulary Words
1.) Estimate: Make a guess on a measurement.
2.) Infer: When you try to explain something
that you observe.
3.) Prediction: What you believe will happen.
4.) Hypothesis: Statement that is an educated
guess that tries to explain what will happen
and why.
5.) Scientific Method: Set of problem solving
steps used by scientist to find out about the
natural world around us.
Vocabulary Words
1.) Control Group: Group in a controlled
experiment in which all factors stay the same.
2.) Experimental Group: Group in a controlled
experiment in which all factors stay the same
except for one, which is called the independent
3.) Fact: Agreement made between scientists.
4.) Theory: Statement that explains why and how
something happens.
5.) Law: When a theory has passed many tests.
Vocabulary Words
1.) Density: How much matter is in a given space
(mass per unit of volume).
2.) Scientific Notation: Used by scientist to save
time when writing very small or very large
3.) Chemistry: Study of matter and it’s changes.
4.) Physics: Study of energy and how it effects
5.) Technology: The application of science to solve
practical problems.
Vocabulary Words
1.) Temperature: Measures average
motion of the molecules.
2.) Heat: Form of energy that speeds up
the motion of the molecules.
3.) Cold: Absence of heat.
4.) Significant Figures: Digits that carry
meaning contributing to its precision.
5.) Graphs: Pictures of recorded data.
Vocabulary Words
1.) Motion: Occurs when an object changes it’s
position when compared to a reference point.
2.) Reference Point: Fixed object that the motion
is compared to.
3.) Speed: Distance an object travels per unit of
4.) Velocity: Speed and direction of a moving
5.) Acceleration: Change in the speed or direction
of a moving object.
Vocabulary Words
1.) Force: Push or pull that causes an object
to move.
2.) Net Force: Overall force acting on an object
(all forces added together).
3.) Unbalanced Forces: Forces that change
an object’s motion.
4.) Balanced Forces: Forces that do not change
an object’s motion.
5.) Inertia: An objects resistance to a change
in motion.
Vocabulary Words
1.) Momentum: Product of an object’s mass
and velocity (mom. = m x v).
2.) Newton: Unit used to measure force
(one N is equal to the force needed to
accelerate 1 Kg of mass 1 m / sec.).
3.) Friction: Force that one surface exerts
on another when two objects rub against
each other.
4.) Projectile Motion: Path of an object that
is thrown.
5.) Terminal Velocity: Greatest speed reached by
a falling object (air resistance = gravity’s pull).
Vocabulary Words
1.) Density: Mass per unit of volume (determines
if an object will sink or float).
2.) Buoyant Force: The force that works in an
upward direction to oppose gravity.
3.) Energy: The ability to do work or cause a
4.) Kinetic Energy: Energy an object has because
of motion.
5.) Potential Energy: Energy an object stores
and hold in readiness.
Vocabulary Words
Nuclear Fusion- Hydrogen molecule join together to
form Helium. Only occurs under extreme heat and
Radiation Zone- Region of sun where tightly packed
gas is transferred as electromagnetic radiation.
Convection Zone- Outer layer of sun’s interior. Hot gas
rises from bottom and cools as it get to the top.
Photosphere- Inner layer of sun’s atmosphere. It gives
off the visible light.
Chromosphere- Middle layer of sun’s atmosphere. Can
only be seen when there is an eclipse. Reddish glow.
Vocabulary Words
Gas Giant- Name often given to the outer
Kuiper Belt- A doughnut shaped region that
stretches from around Pluto to about 100
times earth’s distance from the sun.
Oort Cloud- A spherical of comets that
surrounds the solar system.
Asteroid- Rocky objects revolving around the
sun that are too small and numerous to be
considered planets.
Meteoroid- A chunk of rock or dust in space.
Vocabulary Words
Spectrograph- An instrument that separates
light into colors and make an image of the
Apparent Brightness- The brightness of a star
as seen from earth.
Absolute Brightness- The brightness a star
would have if it were a standard distance from
Parallax-The apparent change in position of an
object when seen from different places.
Nebula-A large cloud of gas and dust in space
spread out an immense volume.
Vocabulary Words
Protostar- A contracting cloud of gas and dust with
enough mass to form a star.
Super Nova- The brilliant explosion of a dying
supergiant star.
Neutron Star- The small dense remains of a high mass
star after a supernova.
Main Sequence- Diagonal area on the H-R diagram
that contains more than 90% of all stars.
Black Hole- An object whose gravity is so strong that
nothing can escape.
Vocabulary Words
Galaxy- A large group of stars, star clusters, dust and
gas held together by gravity
Spiral Galaxy- A galaxy with a bulge in the middle and
arms that spiral outward in a pinwheel pattern.
Elliptical Galaxy- A galaxy shaped like a round or flat
ball, generally only containing older stars.
Irregular Galaxy- A galaxy that does not have a regular
Quasar- An enormously bright distant galaxy with a
giant black hole at the center.
Vocabulary Words
Cosmic Background Radiation- Electromagnetic
radiation leftover by the big bang.
Solar Nebula- A large cloud of gas and dust, such
as the one that formed our solar system.
Planetesimals- One of the small asteroid-like
bodies that formed the building blocks of the
Dark Matter- Matter that does NOT give off
electromagnetic radiation, but is quite abundant
in the universe.
Dark Energy- A mysterious force that appears to
be causing the expansion of the universe to
Vocabulary Words
1.) Atom: Basic building block of all matter (building
block of the universe).
2.) Nucleus: Positive charged center core of the atom.
3.) Protons: Positive charged subatomic particle found
inside the nucleus.
4.) Neutron: Neutral subatomic particle that found
inside the nucleus.
5.) Electron: Negative charged subatomic particle
outside the nucleus in energy levels
Vocabulary Words
1.) Atomic Mass: Average mass of an atom
(also shows the number of protons and
neutrons in the nucleus).
2.) Periodic Table: Shows regular and repeating
patterns of elements.
3.) Atomic Number: Shows the number of protons
in the nucleus.
4.) Period: Horizontal rows on the periodic chart
that shows the number of energy levels around
the nucleus.
5.) Group: Vertical columns on the periodic chart
made up of elements with similar properties
(also known as chemical families).
Vocabulary Words
1.) Valence Electrons: Found in the
outermost energy level. (2-8-8-*8*).
2.) Metals: Found left of the zigzag line on
the chart. Have luster, malleability,
ductility and good conductors.
3.) Reactivity: The ease and speed
elements react to form compounds.
4.) Alloy: Mixture of metals.
5.) Alkali Metals: Group that has one
electron over the stable number.
Vocabulary Words
1.) Alkaline Earth Metals: Group of elements
that have two electrons over the stable
2.) Nonmetals: Found right of the zigzag
line and lack properties of metals.
3.) Diatomic Molecule: When two identical
atoms (nonmetals) form a chemical bond.
4.) Halogens: Group of elements that have
one electron below the stable number.
5.) Metalloids: Elements found touching the
zigzag line that have properties of both
metal and nonmetals.
Vocabulary Words
Matter: Anything that has mass and takes up
Chemistry: The study of matter and how
matter changes.
Element: Substance that cannot be broken
down into any other substances by chemical
or physical changes.
Compounds: Substance that is made up of
two or more substances that chemically
Mixture: Two or more substances that are
in the same place but do not chemically
Vocabulary Words
Ionic Bond: Forms because of an attraction
between oppositely charged particles (forms
between metals and nonmetals).
Polyatomic Ions: When atoms form a
compound and then become ions.
Covalent Bond: Forms when both atoms
attract the two shared electrons at the same
time (forms between nonmetals).
Negative Ion: Occurs when an atom gains an
Positive Ion: Occurs when an atoms losses an
Vocabulary Words
Electron Dot Diagram: Shows how valance
electrons are shared in covalant bonds.
Polar Molecule: When certain ends of the
molecule become positive and negatively
Non-polar Molecule: When valance electrons
are shared equally in the molecule.
Physical Change: Occurs when a change in size,
shape or phase takes place but no new substance
Chemical Change: occurs when a change in matter
takes place when one or more new substance forms.
Vocabulary Words
Chemical formulas: Combination of symbols
and subscripts used to represent a compound.
Subscripts: Number found behind and below a
chemical symbol that shows the number of atoms
in a molecule or compound (H2O).
Coefficient: Number found in front of a chemical
symbol that shows the number of molecules or
compounds in a reaction (2H2O).
Synthesis: Chemical reaction when two or more
substances combine to make a more complex
substance. Example: 2H2 + O2  2H2O
Decomposition: Chemical reaction that breaks down
compounds into simpler products.
Example: 2H2O2  2H2O + O2
Vocabulary Words
Single Replacement: Chemical reaction when one
replaces another in a compound.
Example: 2CuO + C  2 Cu + CO2
Exothermic Reaction: Chemical reaction that
releases energy in the form of heat or light.
Endothermic Reaction: Chemical reaction that
absorbs energy in the form of heat or light.
Catalyst: Material that increases the reaction
rate by lowering the amount of activation
energy that is needed.
Inhibitor: Used to decrease the rate of a
chemical reaction.
Vocabulary Words
1.) Solution: A well mixed mixture whose
particles are to small to see and can not
be separated by filtering.
2.) Solvent: Part of a solution that does the
dissolving, or is the part that has the largest
3.) Solute: Part of a solution that is dissolved,
or the part that has the smaller amount.
4.) Dilute: A solution that contains very little
solute in the solvent.
5.) Concentrated: A solution that contains a
large amount of solute in the solvent.
Vocabulary Words
1.) Solubility: Measure of how well a solute
can dissolve in a solvent at a certain temperature.
2.) Saturated: A solution that contains all the
solute the solvent can hold.
3.) Unsaturated: A solution that can continue
to dissolve more solute.
4.) Acid: Compound that produces hydrogen (H+)
in water, have a pH below 7.
5.) Base: Compound that produces hydroxide ions
(OH-) in water, have a pH above 7.
Vocabulary Words
1.) Indicator: Compound that changes color when it comes in
contact with an acid or a base.
2.) Hydrogen Ion: Ion that is found in acids, created when an
atom loses an electron and becomes a positive charged
3.) Hydroxide Ion: Ion that is found in bases, created when
atoms form a compound and then become a negative
charged ion.
4.) pH Scale: A range of numbers used to express is a
substance is an acid, base or neutral solution.
5.) Neutralization: The reaction between an acid and a base.
Vocabulary Words
1.) Genes: Factors that control traits.
2.) Alleles: Different forms of a gene.
3.) Dominant Allele: Trait that always shows
up in an organism when present.
4.) Recessive Allele: Trait that is masked or
covered up when a dominant allele is
5.) Hybrids: An organism that has two
different alleles for a trait.
Vocabulary Words
1.) Organism: Any living thing (plant or animal).
2.) Genetics: The science of heredity.
3.) Traits: Physical characteristics that an
organism can pass on to its offspring
through genes.
4.) Heredity: The passing of traits from
parents to offspring.
5.) Purebred: Organism that always produces
offspring with the same form of a trait as the
Vocabulary Words
1.) Punnett Square: Chart that shows all the
possible combinations of alleles that can
result from a genetic cross.
2.) Phenotype: An organism’s physical
3.) Genotype: An organism’s genetic makeup.
4.) Homozygous: Organism that has two
identical alleles for a trait.
5.) Heterozygous: Organism that has two different
alleles for a trait.
Vocabulary Words
1.) Meiosis: Occurs in sex cells and is the process in which
the number of chromosomes is reduced by half to form
four new cells.
2.) Mitosis: Occurs in body cells and is the process in which
the cell’s nucleus divides into two new nuclei.
3.) Chromosome: Part of the cell found in the nucleus that
carries genetic information.
4.) DNA: Genetic material that carries information about
the organism.
5.) RNA: Messenger that carries the genetic code from the
DNA inside the nucleus into the cytoplasm outside the
Vocabulary Words
1.) Mutations: Change in a gene or
2.) Carrier: Person who does not have the trait
but can pass the trait on to offspring.
3.) Pedigree: Used by geneticists to trace the
inheritance of traits in humans.
4.) Amniocentesis: Used by doctors to look for
genetic disorders by studying the fluid
surrounding a developing baby.
5.) Karyotype: Picture of all the chromosomes
in a cell.
Vocabulary Words
1.) Habitat: A place where an organism
lives and that provides the things the
organism needs.
2.) Biotic Factors: The living parts of an
3.) Abiotic Factors: The nonliving parts of
an ecosystem.
4.) Species: Group of organisms that are
physically similar and can reproduce
with each other to produce fertile offspring.
5.) Population: All the members of one species
in a particular area.
Vocabulary Words
1.) Community: When different populations
live together in an area.
2.) Ecology: the study of how living things
interact with each other and with their
3.) Estimate: Approximation of a number
based on reasonable assumptions.
4.) Immigration: Moving into a population.
5.) Emigration: Leaving a population.
Vocabulary Words
1.) Limiting Factors: Environment conditions that prevent
a population from increasing.
2.) Carrying Capacity: Largest population that an
environment can support.
3.) Adaptations: Process that results in behaviors and
physical characteristics of species that allow them to
live successfully in their environment.
4.) Niche: An organism’s particular role, how it makes
its living, obtains food, what eats it, how it reproduces
and physical conditions it needs.
5.) Competition: Struggle between organisms to survive
in a habitat with limited resources.
Vocabulary Words
1.) Predation: Interaction in which one
kills and eats another.
2.) Symbiosis: Close relationship between two
species that benefits at least one species.
3.) Mutualism: Relationship in which both
species benefit.
4.) Commensalism: One species benefits
and the other is neither helped or harmed.
5.) Parasitism: One organism lives on or inside
another, harming it.
Vocabulary Words
1.) Tropism: Plant’s growth response towards
or away from stimulus.
2.) Producer: Organisms that can make it’s
own food, the source of all the food in an
3.) Consumer: Organisms that can not make
their own food, obtains energy by feeding
on other organisms.
4.) Food Chain: Series of events in which one
organism eats another and obtains energy.
5.) Food Web: Consists of many overlapping
food chains in an ecosystem.
Vocabulary Words
1.) Pathogens: Organisms that cause disease.
2.) Infectious Disease: A disease that can pass
from one organism to another.
3.) Toxin: Bacterial pathogen that does not enter
cells, but instead will produce a poison that
damages the cell.
4.) Inflammatory Response: When fluid and certain
types of white blood cells leak from blood
vessels into nearby tissue. (cells will then fight
the pathogen).
5.) Phagocyte: White blood cell that engulfs pathogen
and destroys them by breaking them down.
Vocabulary Words
1.) Bacteria: One-celled microorganism that cause a wide
variety of diseases (ear infection, food poisoning, strep
2.) Viruses: Tiny particles much smaller than bacteria that
cannot reproduce unless inside living cells (colds, flu,
chicken pox, aids).
3.) T Cells: Identify pathogens and distinguish one kind of
pathogen from another.
4.) Antigens: Molecules on cells that the immune system
recognizes as part of your body or as something coming
from outside your body.
5.) B Cells: Lymphocytes that produce chemicals that help
destroy each kind of pathogen.
Vocabulary Words
1.) Antibodies: Lock onto pathogens and help destroy
each kind of disease (each antibody has a different
structure so it can bind with different antigens).
2.) Aids: Disease caused by a virus that attacks the
immune system.
3.) Immunity: the body’s ability to destroy pathogens
before they can cause disease.
4.) Vaccination: Process by which harmless antigens
are introduced into a person’s body to produce active
5.) Vaccine: Substance that consists of pathogens that
have been weakened or killed but can still trigger
the immune system.
Vocabulary Words
1.) Active Immunity: When the immune system produces
antibodies in response to the presence of a pathogen
(can last for many years).
2.) Passive Immunity: When needed antibodies must come
from a source outside the body (last for a few months).
3.) Noninfectious disease: Disease that cannot spread from
person to person.
4.) Allergies: Occur when a persons immune system is
overly sensitive to an allergen (pollen, molds, foods,
medicines, pets, poison ivy).
5.) Histamine: Chemical responsible for symptoms of an
Vocabulary Words
1.) Antibiotics: Chemicals that kill bacteria
or slows their growth.
2.) Tumor: Abnormal tissue masses that
invade and destroy healthy tissue.
3.) Carcinogen: Substances or factors
that can determine if cells become
4.) Aging: Physical changes that occur
throughout life.
5.) Death: The end of all vital functions.